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Inorganics 2016, 4(4), 33; doi:10.3390/inorganics4040033

Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Potsdam D-14476, Germany
2
Institute for Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Center of Excellence for Polysaccharide Research, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena D-07743, Germany
3
Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam D-14476, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Cölfen
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
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Abstract

The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the starting solution, hydroxyapatite or brushite precipitates form. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy also show that significant amounts of nitrate ions are incorporated in the precipitates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ca/P ratio varies throughout the samples and resembles that of other bioinspired calcium phosphate hybrid materials. Elemental analysis shows that the carbon (i.e., polymer) contents reach 10% in some samples, clearly illustrating the formation of a true hybrid material. Overall, the data indicate that a higher polymer concentration in the reaction mixture favors the formation of polymer-enriched materials, while lower polymer concentrations or high precursor concentrations favor the formation of products that are closely related to the control samples precipitated in the absence of polymer. The results thus highlight the potential of (water-soluble) cellulose derivatives for the synthesis and design of bioinspired and bio-based hybrid materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose; polyamine; polyammonium salt; polycarboxylate; polyzwitterion; calcium phosphate; biomineralization; brushite; hydroyxapatite; biomaterial cellulose; polyamine; polyammonium salt; polycarboxylate; polyzwitterion; calcium phosphate; biomineralization; brushite; hydroyxapatite; biomaterial
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Taubert, A.; Balischewski, C.; Hentrich, D.; Elschner, T.; Eidner, S.; Günter, C.; Behrens, K.; Heinze, T. Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization. Inorganics 2016, 4, 33.

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