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Proteomes, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2013), Pages 180-308

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Bioinformatic Analysis of Differential Protein Expression in Calu-3 Cells Exposed to Carbon Nanotubes
Proteomes 2013, 1(3), 219-239; doi:10.3390/proteomes1030219
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 29 September 2013 / Accepted: 30 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanomaterials are widely produced and used in industry, medicine and scientific research. To examine the impact of exposure to nanoparticles on human health, the human airway epithelial cell line, Calu-3, was used to evaluate changes in the cellular proteome that could account
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Carbon nanomaterials are widely produced and used in industry, medicine and scientific research. To examine the impact of exposure to nanoparticles on human health, the human airway epithelial cell line, Calu-3, was used to evaluate changes in the cellular proteome that could account for alterations in cellular function of airway epithelia after 24 hexposure to 10 μg/mL and 100 ng/mLof two common carbon nanoparticles, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, MWCNT). After exposure to the nanoparticles, label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS) was used to study the differential protein expression. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to conduct a bioinformaticanalysis of proteins identified in LFQMS. Interestingly, after exposure to ahigh concentration (10 mg/mL; 0.4 mg/cm2) of MWCNT or SWCNT, only 8 and 13 proteins, respectively, exhibited changes in abundance. In contrast, the abundance of hundreds of proteins was altered in response to a low concentration (100 ng/mL; 4 ng/cm2) of either CNT. Of the 281 and 282 proteins that were significantly altered in response to MWCNT or SWCNT respectively, 231 proteins were the same. Bioinformatic analyses found that the proteins in common to both nanotubes occurred within the cellular functions of cell death and survival, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular assembly and organization, cellular growth and proliferation, infectious disease, molecular transport and protein synthesis. The majority of the protein changes represent a decrease in amount suggesting a general stress response to protect cells. The STRING database was used to analyze the various functional protein networks. Interestingly, some proteins like cadherin 1 (CDH1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), junction plakoglobin (JUP), and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (PYCARD), appear in several functional categories and tend to be in the center of the networks. This central positioning suggests they may play important roles in multiple cellular functions and activities that are altered in response to carbon nanotube exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
Open AccessArticle Proteomic Analysis of Matched Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Specimens in Patients with Advanced Serous Ovarian Carcinoma
Proteomes 2013, 1(3), 240-253; doi:10.3390/proteomes1030240
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 17 October 2013
PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objective: The biology of high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is poorly understood. Little has been reported on intratumoral homogeneity or heterogeneity of primary HGSOC tumors and their metastases. We evaluated the global protein expression profiles of paired primary and metastatic HGSOC from
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Objective: The biology of high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is poorly understood. Little has been reported on intratumoral homogeneity or heterogeneity of primary HGSOC tumors and their metastases. We evaluated the global protein expression profiles of paired primary and metastatic HGSOC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. Methods: After IRB approval, six patients with advanced HGSOC were identified with tumor in both ovaries at initial surgery. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to extract tumor for protein digestion. Peptides were extracted and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Tandem mass spectra were searched against the UniProt human protein database. Differences in protein abundance between samples were assessed and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for select proteins from the original and an additional validation set of five patients was performed. Results: Unsupervised clustering of the abundance profiles placed the paired specimens adjacent to each other. IHC H-score analysis of the validation set revealed a strong correlation between paired samples for all proteins. For the similarly expressed proteins, the estimated correlation coefficients in two of three experimental samples and all validation samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The estimated correlation coefficients in the experimental sample proteins classified as differentially expressed were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A global proteomic screen of primary HGSOC tumors and their metastatic lesions identifies tumoral homogeneity and heterogeneity and provides preliminary insight into these protein profiles and the cellular pathways they constitute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
Open AccessArticle PAPE (Prefractionation-Assisted Phosphoprotein Enrichment): A Novel Approach for Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Green Tissues from Plants
Proteomes 2013, 1(3), 254-274; doi:10.3390/proteomes1030254
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phosphorylation is an important post-translational protein modification with regulatory roles in diverse cellular signaling pathways. Despite recent advances in mass spectrometry, the detection of phosphoproteins involved in signaling is still challenging, as protein phosphorylation is typically transient and/or occurs at low levels. In
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Phosphorylation is an important post-translational protein modification with regulatory roles in diverse cellular signaling pathways. Despite recent advances in mass spectrometry, the detection of phosphoproteins involved in signaling is still challenging, as protein phosphorylation is typically transient and/or occurs at low levels. In green plant tissues, the presence of highly abundant proteins, such as the subunits of the RuBisCO complex, further complicates phosphoprotein analysis. Here, we describe a simple, but powerful, method, which we named prefractionation-assisted phosphoprotein enrichment (PAPE), to increase the yield of phosphoproteins from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf material. The first step, a prefractionation via ammonium sulfate precipitation, not only depleted RuBisCO almost completely, but, serendipitously, also served as an efficient phosphoprotein enrichment step. When coupled with a subsequent metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) step, the phosphoprotein content was highly enriched. The reproducibility and efficiency of phosphoprotein enrichment was verified by phospho-specific staining and, further, by mass spectrometry, where it could be shown that the final PAPE fraction contained a significant number of known and additionally novel (potential) phosphoproteins. Hence, this facile two-step procedure is a good prerequisite to probe the phosphoproteome and gain deeper insight into plant phosphorylation-based signaling events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomics) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessArticle Shared and Unique Proteins in Human, Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes: Footprints of Functional Adaptation
Proteomes 2013, 1(3), 275-289; doi:10.3390/proteomes1030275
Received: 8 November 2013 / Revised: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this
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The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with saliva collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6) and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi). Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in the evolutionary adaptation of the secretions in the three different mammals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)
Open AccessArticle Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity
Proteomes 2013, 1(3), 290-308; doi:10.3390/proteomes1030290
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 7 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining
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Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its inability to resolve all proteins. In contrast, orthogonal separation by SDS-PAGE and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) affords deep mining of the muscle proteome, but differential analysis between samples is challenging due to the greater level of fractionation and the complexities of quantifying proteins based on the abundances of their tryptic peptides. Here we report simple, semi-automated and time efficient (i.e., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n = 5, in each group) bred as either high- or low-capacity runners (HCR and LCR, respectively) that exhibited a 6.4-fold difference (1,625 ± 112 m vs. 252 ± 43 m, p < 0.0001) in running capacity during a standardized treadmill test. Soluble muscle proteins were extracted, digested with trypsin and individual biological replicates (50 ng of tryptic peptides) subjected to LC-MS profiling. Proteins were identified by triplicate LC-MS/MS analysis of a pooled sample of each biological replicate. Differential expression profiling was performed on relative abundances (RA) of parent ions, which spanned three orders of magnitude. In total, 207 proteins were analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin heavy chain (RA = 5,843 ± 897) and the least abundant protein detected was heat shock 70 kDa protein (RA = 2 ± 0.5). Sixteen proteins were significantly (p < 0.05) more abundant in HCR muscle and hierarchal clustering of the profiling data highlighted two protein subgroups, which encompassed proteins associated with either the respiratory chain or fatty acid oxidation. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABPH) was 1.54-fold (p = 0.0064) more abundant in HCR than LCR soleus. This discovery was verified using selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of the y5 ion (551.21 m/z) of the doubly-charged peptide SLGVGFATR (454.19 m/z) of residues 23–31 of FABPH. SRM was conducted on technical replicates of each biological sample and exhibited a coefficient of variation of 20%. The abundance of FABPH measured by SRM was 2.84-fold greater (p = 0.0095) in HCR muscle. In addition, SRM of FABPH was performed in vastus lateralis samples of young and elderly humans with different habitual activity levels (collected during a previous study) finding FABPH abundance was 2.23-fold greater (p = 0.0396) in endurance-trained individuals regardless of differences in age. In summary, our findings in HCR/LCR rats provide protein-level confirmation for earlier transcriptome profiling work and show LC-MS is a viable means of profiling the abundance of almost all major metabolic enzymes of skeletal muscle in a highly parallel manner. Moreover, our approach is relatively more time efficient than techniques relying on orthogonal separations, and we demonstrate LC-MS profiling of the HCR/LCR selection model was able to highlight biomarkers that also exhibit differences in trained and untrained human muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)

Review

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Open AccessReview Comparative and Quantitative Global Proteomics Approaches: An Overview
Proteomes 2013, 1(3), 180-218; doi:10.3390/proteomes1030180
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Proteomics became a key tool for the study of biological systems. The comparison between two different physiological states allows unravelling the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in a biological process. Proteomics can confirm the presence of proteins suggested by their mRNA content and
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Proteomics became a key tool for the study of biological systems. The comparison between two different physiological states allows unravelling the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in a biological process. Proteomics can confirm the presence of proteins suggested by their mRNA content and provides a direct measure of the quantity present in a cell. Global and targeted proteomics strategies can be applied. Targeted proteomics strategies limit the number of features that will be monitored and then optimise the methods to obtain the highest sensitivity and throughput for a huge amount of samples. The advantage of global proteomics strategies is that no hypothesis is required, other than a measurable difference in one or more protein species between the samples. Global proteomics methods attempt to separate quantify and identify all the proteins from a given sample. This review highlights only the different techniques of separation and quantification of proteins and peptides, in view of a comparative and quantitative global proteomics analysis. The in-gel and off-gel quantification of proteins will be discussed as well as the corresponding mass spectrometry technology. The overview is focused on the widespread techniques while keeping in mind that each approach is modular and often recovers the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights and Trends into Proteome Science)

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