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Proteomes, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2013), Pages 25-179

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 25-39; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020025
Received: 1 May 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant
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A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all depend significantly on the number hydrogen bonds formed. This study demonstrated that it is necessary to gain insight into protein dynamics under external electric field stress, in order to develop the novel food processing techniques that can be potentially used to reduce or eradicate food allergens. Full article
Open AccessArticle Serum Proteome Analysis for Profiling Predictive Protein Markers Associated with the Severity of Skin Lesions Induced by Ionizing Radiation
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 40-69; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020040
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 10 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The finding of new diagnostic and prognostic markers of local radiation injury, and particularly of the cutaneous radiation syndrome, is crucial for its medical management, in the case of both accidental exposure and radiotherapy side effects. Especially, a fast high-throughput method is still
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The finding of new diagnostic and prognostic markers of local radiation injury, and particularly of the cutaneous radiation syndrome, is crucial for its medical management, in the case of both accidental exposure and radiotherapy side effects. Especially, a fast high-throughput method is still needed for triage of people accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, we investigated the impact of localized irradiation of the skin on the early alteration of the serum proteome of mice in an effort to discover markers associated with the exposure and severity of impending damage. Using two different large-scale quantitative proteomic approaches, 2D-DIGE-MS and SELDI-TOF-MS, we performed global analyses of serum proteins collected in the clinical latency phase (days 3 and 7) from non-irradiated and locally irradiated mice exposed to high doses of 20, 40 and 80 Gy which will develop respectively erythema, moist desquamation and necrosis. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical analyses (principal component analysis, partial-least square discriminant analysis and Random Forest analysis) using 2D-DIGE quantitative protein data allowed us to discriminate early between non-irradiated and irradiated animals, and between uninjured/slightly injured animals and animals that will develop severe lesions. On the other hand, despite a high number of animal replicates, PLS-DA and Random Forest analyses of SELDI-TOF-MS data failed to reveal sets of MS peaks able to discriminate between the different groups of animals. Our results show that, unlike SELDI-TOF-MS, the 2D-DIGE approach remains a powerful and promising method for the discovery of sets of proteins that could be used for the development of clinical tests for triage and the prognosis of the severity of radiation-induced skin lesions. We propose a list of 15 proteins which constitutes a set of candidate proteins for triage and prognosis of skin lesion outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Proteomics)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Analysis of the Human Milk Whey Proteome Reveals Developing Milk and Mammary-Gland Functions across the First Year of Lactation
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 128-158; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020128
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In-depth understanding of the changing functions of human milk (HM) proteins and the corresponding physiological adaptions of the lactating mammary gland has been inhibited by incomplete knowledge of the HM proteome. We analyzed the HM whey proteome (n = 10 women with
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In-depth understanding of the changing functions of human milk (HM) proteins and the corresponding physiological adaptions of the lactating mammary gland has been inhibited by incomplete knowledge of the HM proteome. We analyzed the HM whey proteome (n = 10 women with samples at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) using a quantitative proteomic approach. One thousand three hundred and thirty three proteins were identified with 615 being quantified. Principal component analysis revealed a transition in the HM whey proteome-throughout the first year of lactation. Abundance changes in IgG, sIgA and sIgM display distinct features during the first year. Complement components and other acute-phase proteins are generally at higher levels in early lactation. Proteomic analysis further suggests that the sources of milk fatty acids (FA) shift from more direct blood influx to more de novo mammary synthesis over lactation. The abundances of the majority of glycoproteins decline over lactation, which is consistent with increased enzyme expression in glycoprotein degradation and decreased enzyme expression in glycoprotein synthesis. Cellular detoxification machinery may be transformed as well, thereby accommodating increased metabolic activities in late lactation. The multiple developing functions of HM proteins and the corresponding mammary adaption become more apparent from this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper 2013)

Review

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Open AccessReview Impact of Solar Radiation on Gene Expression in Bacteria
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 70-86; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020070
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microorganisms often regulate their gene expression at the level of transcription and/or translation in response to solar radiation. In this review, we present the use of both transcriptomics and proteomics to advance knowledge in the field of bacterial response to damaging radiation. Those
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Microorganisms often regulate their gene expression at the level of transcription and/or translation in response to solar radiation. In this review, we present the use of both transcriptomics and proteomics to advance knowledge in the field of bacterial response to damaging radiation. Those studies pertain to diverse application areas such as fundamental microbiology, water treatment, microbial ecology and astrobiology. Even though it has been demonstrated that mRNA abundance is not always consistent with the protein regulation, we present here an exhaustive review on how bacteria regulate their gene expression at both transcription and translation levels to enable biomarkers identification and comparison of gene regulation from one bacterial species to another. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Proteomics)
Open AccessReview Exosomal Proteome Profiling: A Potential Multi-Marker Cellular Phenotyping Tool to Characterize Hypoxia-Induced Radiation Resistance in Breast Cancer
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 87-108; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020087
Received: 17 June 2013 / Revised: 16 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Radiation and drug resistance are significant challenges in the treatment of locally advanced, recurrent and metastatic breast cancer that contribute to mortality. Clinically, radiotherapy requires oxygen to generate cytotoxic free radicals that cause DNA damage and allow that damage to become fixed in
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Radiation and drug resistance are significant challenges in the treatment of locally advanced, recurrent and metastatic breast cancer that contribute to mortality. Clinically, radiotherapy requires oxygen to generate cytotoxic free radicals that cause DNA damage and allow that damage to become fixed in the genome rather than repaired. However, approximately 40% of all breast cancers have hypoxic tumor microenvironments that render cancer cells significantly more resistant to irradiation. Hypoxic stimuli trigger changes in the cell death/survival pathway that lead to increased cellular radiation resistance. As a result, the development of noninvasive strategies to assess tumor hypoxia in breast cancer has recently received considerable attention. Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that have roles in paracrine signaling during breast tumor progression, including tumor-stromal interactions, activation of proliferative pathways and immunosuppression. The recent development of protocols to isolate and purify exosomes, as well as advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have facilitated the comprehensive analysis of exosome content and function. Using these tools, studies have demonstrated that the proteome profiles of tumor-derived exosomes are indicative of the oxygenation status of patient tumors. They have also demonstrated that exosome signaling pathways are potentially targetable drivers of hypoxia-dependent intercellular signaling during tumorigenesis. This article provides an overview of how proteomic tools can be effectively used to characterize exosomes and elucidate fundamental signaling pathways and survival mechanisms underlying hypoxia-mediated radiation resistance in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Proteomics)
Open AccessReview Proteomic Workflows for Biomarker Identification Using Mass Spectrometry — Technical and Statistical Considerations during Initial Discovery
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 109-127; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020109
Received: 27 June 2013 / Revised: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identification of biomarkers capable of differentiating between pathophysiological states of an individual is a laudable goal in the field of proteomics. Protein biomarker discovery generally employs high throughput sample characterization by mass spectrometry (MS), being capable of identifying and quantifying thousands of proteins
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Identification of biomarkers capable of differentiating between pathophysiological states of an individual is a laudable goal in the field of proteomics. Protein biomarker discovery generally employs high throughput sample characterization by mass spectrometry (MS), being capable of identifying and quantifying thousands of proteins per sample. While MS-based technologies have rapidly matured, the identification of truly informative biomarkers remains elusive, with only a handful of clinically applicable tests stemming from proteomic workflows. This underlying lack of progress is attributed in large part to erroneous experimental design, biased sample handling, as well as improper statistical analysis of the resulting data. This review will discuss in detail the importance of experimental design and provide some insight into the overall workflow required for biomarker identification experiments. Proper balance between the degree of biological vs. technical replication is required for confident biomarker identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights and Trends into Proteome Science)
Open AccessReview High-Throughput Proteomic Approaches to the Elucidation of Potential Biomarkers of Chronic Allograft Injury (CAI)
Proteomes 2013, 1(2), 159-179; doi:10.3390/proteomes1020159
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review focuses on the role of OMICs technologies, concentrating in particular on proteomics, in biomarker discovery in chronic allograft injury (CAI). CAI is the second most prevalent cause of allograft dysfunction and loss in the first decade post-transplantation, after death with functioning
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This review focuses on the role of OMICs technologies, concentrating in particular on proteomics, in biomarker discovery in chronic allograft injury (CAI). CAI is the second most prevalent cause of allograft dysfunction and loss in the first decade post-transplantation, after death with functioning graft (DWFG). The term CAI, sometimes referred to as chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), describes the deterioration of renal allograft function and structure as a result of immunological processes (chronic antibody-mediated rejection), and other non-immunological factors such as calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced nephrotoxicity, hypertension and infection. Current methods for assessing allograft function are costly, insensitive and invasive; traditional kidney function measurements such as serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) display poor predictive abilities, while the current “gold-standard” involving histological diagnosis with a renal biopsy presents its own inherent risks to the overall health of the allograft. As early as two years post-transplantation, protocol biopsies have shown more than 50% of allograft recipients have mild CAN; ten years post-transplantation more than 50% of the allograft recipients have progressed to severe CAN which is associated with diminishing graft function. Thus, there is a growing medical requirement for minimally invasive biomarkers capable of identifying the early stages of the disease which would allow for timely intervention. Proteomics involves the study of the expression, localization, function and interaction of the proteome. Proteomic technologies may be powerful tools used to identify novel biomarkers which would predict CAI in susceptible individuals. In this paper we will review the use of proteomics in the elucidation of novel predictive biomarkers of CAI in clinical, animal and in vitro studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights and Trends into Proteome Science)

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