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Aerospace, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Design and Performance of Modular 3-D Printed Solid-Propellant Rocket Airframes
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 17; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020017
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
Solid-propellant rockets are used for many applications, including military technology, scientific research, entertainment, and aerospace education. This study explores a novel method for design modularization of the rocket airframes, utilizing additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The new method replaces the use of standard part
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Solid-propellant rockets are used for many applications, including military technology, scientific research, entertainment, and aerospace education. This study explores a novel method for design modularization of the rocket airframes, utilizing additive manufacturing (AM) technology. The new method replaces the use of standard part subsystems with complex multi-function parts to improve customization, design flexibility, performance, and reliability. To test the effectiveness of the process, two experiments were performed on several unique designs: (1) ANSYS CFX® simulation to measure the drag coefficients, the pressure fields, and the streamlines during representative flights and (2) fabrication and launch of the developed designs to test their flight performance and consistency. Altitude and 3-axis stability was measured during the eight flights via an onboard instrument package. Data from both experiments demonstrated that the designs were effective, but varied widely in their performance; the sources of the performance differences and errors were documented and analyzed. The modularization process reduced the number of parts dramatically, while retaining good performance and reliability. The specific benefits and caveats of using extrusion-based 3-D printing to produce airframe components are also demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle Spray Characteristics of Alternative Aviation Fuel Blends
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020018
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
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Abstract
The compatibility of spray characteristics of alternative fuel blends, in relation to currently used Jet A-1 fuel, has been assessed experimentally. Tested blends were selected based on a narrow cut of paraffins, mixed with appropriately selected aromatics and naphthenes. Relevant physical properties including
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The compatibility of spray characteristics of alternative fuel blends, in relation to currently used Jet A-1 fuel, has been assessed experimentally. Tested blends were selected based on a narrow cut of paraffins, mixed with appropriately selected aromatics and naphthenes. Relevant physical properties including the density, viscosity, and surface tension were estimated first. The jet spray was produced using a single fluid, generic nozzle at operating pressures 5–11 bars. The atomization characteristics were assessed through measurements of droplet velocity field and droplet size, using phase Doppler anemometry. The physical properties varied within 10% of the reference fuel values. The spray results indicate that all tested blends produced similar atomized jets and droplet sizes, although observed differences may influence the implementation of combustion schemes which require precise control of the flow pattern. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flight Dynamics and Control Using Folding Wingtips: An Experimental Study
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020019
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation on using FOLDing wingtips sERving as cONtrol effectorS (FOLDERONS) for a mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A representative off-the-shelf mini-UAV with a conventional configuration was selected. The main theme of this paper is to utilise FOLDERONS as
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This paper presents an experimental investigation on using FOLDing wingtips sERving as cONtrol effectorS (FOLDERONS) for a mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A representative off-the-shelf mini-UAV with a conventional configuration was selected. The main theme of this paper is to utilise FOLDERONS as a control effector (mainly in roll) to augment the control authority of conventional control surfaces. Furthermore, the impact of actuation rate on the effectiveness of FOLDERONS is assessed. The paper describes the preliminary and detailed design and sizing of the morphing wing. In addition, the manufacturing of the wing system and its integration with the UAV are addressed. Wind-tunnel testing in the RJ Mitchell wind-tunnel at the University of Southampton was performed. Both static (straight and sideslip) and dynamic (straight flight) tests are conducted at a range of airspeeds and Angles Of Attack (AOAs). The impact of folding wingtips on the lateral and directional stability is analysed. The main finding of this paper is that FOLDERONS are effective (especially at large dynamic pressure and AOAs) in controlling the lateral and directional stability. Finally, this study shows that FOLDERONS cannot fully replace conventional ailerons especially at low dynamic pressures, and their strong dependence on the AOA makes them prone to a roll reversal phenomena when the wing (and FOLDERONS) is operating at negative AOAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive/Smart Structures and Multifunctional Materials 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Aerodynamics, Including Dynamic Stall, for Comprehensive Analysis of Helicopter Rotors
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020021
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
To fulfill the objective of a predictive tool for rotorcraft, comprehensive analysis (CA) needs to be capable of providing both accurate and time-efficient predictions of rotor air loads and structural loads. The more recent methodology based on comprehensive analysis coupled with high-fidelity computational
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To fulfill the objective of a predictive tool for rotorcraft, comprehensive analysis (CA) needs to be capable of providing both accurate and time-efficient predictions of rotor air loads and structural loads. The more recent methodology based on comprehensive analysis coupled with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown improved predictions of air loads, but it has not the strength of computational efficiency and the versatility of stand-alone CA. The present article is concerned with modeling aerodynamics about helicopter rotors for CA. The aerodynamics about rotors are very complex, encompassing subsonic to transonic flow with unsteady, stalled behavior and 3D effects. CA treats aerodynamics as separated into local and global flows. Semi-empirical models of dynamic stall were created in the 1970s–1990s for modeling unsteady local aerodynamics, including stalled flow. Most of them fail to provide good predictions of experimental results and also suffer problems of numerical convergence. The main effort in this study is about modeling local aerodynamics based on the revised “ONERA–Hopf bifurcation model”. It is implemented in the comprehensive analysis code of ONERA according to a scheme that ensures numerical convergence. The experimental results obtained in the Wind Tunnel S1 of Modane (France) in 1991 on the Rotor 7A are considered for validation of the analysis under three flight test conditions: high-speed test, high-thrust tests with light stall and deep stall, respectively. There is a reasonable agreement between the predictions of CA with experimental results. The distinct features of the stall model are the modeling of the boundary-layer effects and the vortex-shedding phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle Vortex Lattice Simulations of Attached and Separated Flows around Flapping Wings
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020022
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast, but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimizing thrust production.
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Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast, but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimizing thrust production. In this work, the unsteady vortex lattice method is used in conjunction with three load estimation techniques in order to predict the aerodynamic lift and drag time histories produced by flapping rectangular wings. The load estimation approaches are the Katz, Joukowski and simplified Leishman–Beddoes techniques. The simulations’ predictions are compared to experimental measurements from wind tunnel tests of a flapping and pitching wing. Three types of kinematics are investigated, pitch-leading, pure flapping and pitch lagging. It is found that pitch-leading tests can be simulated quite accurately using either the Katz or Joukowski approaches as no measurable flow separation occurs. For the pure flapping tests, the Katz and Joukowski techniques are accurate as long as the static pitch angle is greater than zero. For zero or negative static pitch angles, these methods underestimate the amplitude of the drag. The Leishman–Beddoes approach yields better drag amplitudes, but can introduce a constant negative drag offset. Finally, for the pitch-lagging tests the Leishman–Beddoes technique is again more representative of the experimental results, as long as flow separation is not too extensive. Considering the complexity of the phenomena involved, in the vast majority of cases, the lift time history is predicted with reasonable accuracy. The drag (or thrust) time history is more challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Entry Minimal Path UAV Loitering Path Planning
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020023
Received: 11 March 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) performing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) typically fly over Areas of Interest (AOIs) to collect sensor data of the ground from the air. If needed, the traditional method of extending sensor collection time is to loiter or
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Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) performing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) typically fly over Areas of Interest (AOIs) to collect sensor data of the ground from the air. If needed, the traditional method of extending sensor collection time is to loiter or turn circularly around the center of an AOI. Current Autopilot systems on small UAVs can be limited in their feature set and typically follow a waypoint chain system that allows for loitering, but requires that the center of the AOI to be traversed which may produce unwanted turns outside of the AOI before entering the loiter. An investigation was performed to compare the current loitering techniques against two novel smart loitering methods. The first method investigated, Tangential Loitering Path Planner (TLPP), utilized paths tangential to the AOIs to enter and exit efficiently, eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI. The second method, Least Distance Loitering Path Planner (LDLPP), utilized four unique flight maneuvers that reduce transit distances while eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI present in the TLPP method. Simulation results concluded that the Smart Loitering Methods provide better AOI coverage during six mission scenarios. It was also determined that the LDLPP method spends less time in transit between AOIs. The reduction in required transit time could be used for surveying additional AOIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Unmanned Aerial Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Wake Shapes on High-Lift System Aerodynamic Predictions
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020024
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 8 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
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Abstract
High-lift devices are commonly modelled using potential flow methods at the conceptual design stage. Often, these analyses require the use of prescribed wake shapes in order to avoid numerical stability issues. The wake type used, however, has an impact on the absolute aerodynamic
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High-lift devices are commonly modelled using potential flow methods at the conceptual design stage. Often, these analyses require the use of prescribed wake shapes in order to avoid numerical stability issues. The wake type used, however, has an impact on the absolute aerodynamic load predictions, which is why, in general, these methods are used to assess performance changes due to configuration variations. Therefore, a study was completed that compared the predicted aerodynamic performance changes of such variations of high-lift configurations using different wake types. Lift and induced drag results are compared with the results that were obtained using relaxed wakes and various prescribed wake shapes. Specific attention is given to predictions of performance changes due to changes in geometry. It was found that models with wakes that are prescribed below the freestream direction yield the best results when investigating performance changes due to flap deflections and flap-span changes. The effect of flap-gap sizes is best evaluated using a fully-relaxed model. The numerically most stable approach of wakes that are prescribed leaving the trailing edge upwards seems to be least reliable in predicting performance changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020025
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations
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The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2) at the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC). Four separate cases of freestream conditions are simulated to examine the models for a range of stagnation enthalpies from 5.44 MJ/kg to 21.77 MJ/kg and Mach numbers from 10.9 to 12.82. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Structure Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Hollow Cathodes for Space Electric Propulsion at Sitael
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020026
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract
Hollow cathodes are electron sources used for the gas ionization and the beam neutralization in both ion and Hall effect thrusters (HETs). A reduction of power and propellant consumption from the cathode is particularly needed in small satellite applications, where power and mass
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Hollow cathodes are electron sources used for the gas ionization and the beam neutralization in both ion and Hall effect thrusters (HETs). A reduction of power and propellant consumption from the cathode is particularly needed in small satellite applications, where power and mass budgets are inherently limited. Concurrently, the interest in high-power HETs is increasingly fostered for a number of space applications, including final positioning and station-keeping of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, spacecraft transfers from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to GEO, and deep-space exploration missions. As such, several hollow cathodes have been developed and tested at Sitael, each conceived for a specific power class of thrusters. A numerical model was used during the cathode design to define the geometry, in accordance with the thruster unit specifications in terms of discharge current, mass flow rate, and lifetime. Lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathodes were successfully developed for HETs with discharge power ranging from 100 W to 20 kW. Experimental campaigns were carried out in both stand-alone and coupled configurations, to verify the operation of the cathodes and validate the numerical model. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results are presented, offering a sound framework to drive the design of future hollow cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Aerospace Sciences and Technologies in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle Stochastic Trajectory Generation Using Particle Swarm Optimization for Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020027
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to provide a realistic stochastic trajectory generation method for unmanned aerial vehicles that offers a tool for the emulation of trajectories in typical flight scenarios. Three scenarios are defined in this paper. The trajectories for these scenarios
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The aim of this paper is to provide a realistic stochastic trajectory generation method for unmanned aerial vehicles that offers a tool for the emulation of trajectories in typical flight scenarios. Three scenarios are defined in this paper. The trajectories for these scenarios are implemented with quintic B-splines that grant smoothness in the second-order derivatives of Euler angles and accelerations. In order to tune the parameters of the quintic B-spline in the search space, a multi-objective optimization method called particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used. The proposed technique satisfies the constraints imposed by the configuration of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Further particular constraints can be introduced such as: obstacle avoidance, speed limitation, and actuator torque limitations due to the practical feasibility of the trajectories. Finally, the standard rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT*) algorithm, the standard (A*) algorithm and the genetic algorithm (GA) are simulated to make a comparison with the proposed algorithm in terms of execution time and effectiveness in finding the minimum length trajectory. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Unmanned Aerial Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Good Code Sets from Complementary Pairs via Discrete Frequency Chips
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020028
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017
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Abstract
It is shown that replacing the sinusoidal chip in Golay complementary code pairs by special classes of waveforms that satisfy two conditions, symmetry/anti-symmetry and quazi-orthogonality in the convolution sense, renders the complementary codes immune to frequency selective fading and also allows for concatenating
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It is shown that replacing the sinusoidal chip in Golay complementary code pairs by special classes of waveforms that satisfy two conditions, symmetry/anti-symmetry and quazi-orthogonality in the convolution sense, renders the complementary codes immune to frequency selective fading and also allows for concatenating them in time using one frequency band/channel. This results in a zero-sidelobe region around the mainlobe and an adjacent region of small cross-correlation sidelobes. The symmetry/anti-symmetry property results in the zero-sidelobe region on either side of the mainlobe, while quasi-orthogonality of the two chips keeps the adjacent region of cross-correlations small. Such codes are constructed using discrete frequency-coding waveforms (DFCW) based on linear frequency modulation (LFM) and piecewise LFM (PLFM) waveforms as chips for the complementary code pair, as they satisfy both the symmetry/anti-symmetry and quasi-orthogonality conditions. It is also shown that changing the slopes/chirp rates of the DFCW waveforms (based on LFM and PLFM waveforms) used as chips with the same complementary code pair results in good code sets with a zero-sidelobe region. It is also shown that a second good code set with a zero-sidelobe region could be constructed from the mates of the complementary code pair, while using the same DFCW waveforms as their chips. The cross-correlation between the two sets is shown to contain a zero-sidelobe region and an adjacent region of small cross-correlation sidelobes. Thus, the two sets are quasi-orthogonal and could be combined to form a good code set with twice the number of codes without affecting their cross-correlation properties. Or a better good code set with the same number codes could be constructed by choosing the best candidates form the two sets. Such code sets find utility in multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) radar applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar and Aerospace)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficiently Parallelized High-Order Aeroacoustics Solver Using a Characteristic-Based Multi-Block Interface Treatment and Optimized Compact Finite Differencing
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020029
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the development of a fourth-order finite difference computational aeroacoustics solver. The solver works with a structured multi-block grid domain strategy, and it has been parallelized efficiently by using an interface treatment based on the method of characteristics. More importantly, it
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This paper presents the development of a fourth-order finite difference computational aeroacoustics solver. The solver works with a structured multi-block grid domain strategy, and it has been parallelized efficiently by using an interface treatment based on the method of characteristics. More importantly, it extends the characteristic boundary condition developments of previous researchers by introducing a characteristic-based treatment at the multi-block interfaces. In addition, most characteristic methods do not satisfy Pfaff’s condition, which is a requirement for any mathematical relation to be valid. A mathematically-consistent and valid method is used in this work to derive the characteristic interface conditions. Furthermore, a robust and efficient approach for the matching of turbulence quantities at the multi-block interfaces is developed. Finally, the implementation of grid metric relations to minimise grid-induced errors has been adopted. The code was validated against a number of benchmark cases, which demonstrated its accuracy and robustness across a range of problem types. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Mode Electric Actuator Dynamic Modelling for Missile Fin Control
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 30; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020030
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC) actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral
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Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC) actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral acceleration (LATAX) performance. This paper aims to integrate a generic DC fin actuator model with dual-mode feedforward and feedback control for tail-controlled missiles in conjunction with the autopilot system design. Moreover, the characteristics of the actuator torque information in relation to the aerodynamic fin loading for given missile trim velocities are also provided. The novelty of this paper is the integration of the missile LATAX autopilot states and actuator states including the motor torque, position and angular velocity. The advantage of such an approach is the parametric analysis and suitability of the fin actuator in relation to the missile lateral acceleration dynamic behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 31; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020031
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper discusses the derivation and implementation of a nonlinear model predictive control law for tracking reference trajectories and constrained control of a quadrotor platform. The approach uses the state-dependent coefficient form to capture the system nonlinearities into a pseudo-linear system matrix. The
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This paper discusses the derivation and implementation of a nonlinear model predictive control law for tracking reference trajectories and constrained control of a quadrotor platform. The approach uses the state-dependent coefficient form to capture the system nonlinearities into a pseudo-linear system matrix. The state-dependent coefficient form is derived following a rigorous analysis of aerial vehicle dynamics that systematically accounts for the peculiarities of such systems. The same state-dependent coefficient form is exploited for obtaining a nonlinear equivalent of the model predictive control. The nonlinear model predictive control law is derived by first transforming the continuous system into a sampled-data form and and then using a sequential quadratic programming solver while accounting for input, output and state constraints. The boundedness of the tracking errors using the sampled-data implementation is shown explicitly. The performance of the nonlinear controller is illustrated through representative simulations showing the tracking of several aggressive reference trajectories with and without disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Unmanned Aerial Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Aerial Target Tracking Algorithm Based on Faster R-CNN Combined with Frame Differencing
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 32; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020032
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
We propose a robust approach to detecting and tracking moving objects for a naval unmanned aircraft system (UAS) landing on an aircraft carrier. The frame difference algorithm follows a simple principle to achieve real-time tracking, whereas Faster Region-Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN) performs highly
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We propose a robust approach to detecting and tracking moving objects for a naval unmanned aircraft system (UAS) landing on an aircraft carrier. The frame difference algorithm follows a simple principle to achieve real-time tracking, whereas Faster Region-Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN) performs highly precise detection and tracking characteristics. We thus combine Faster R-CNN with the frame difference method, which is demonstrated to exhibit robust and real-time detection and tracking performance. In our UAS landing experiments, two cameras placed on both sides of the runway are used to capture the moving UAS. When the UAS is captured, the joint algorithm uses frame difference to detect the moving target (UAS). As soon as the Faster R-CNN algorithm accurately detects the UAS, the detection priority is given to Faster R-CNN. In this manner, we also perform motion segmentation and object detection in the presence of changes in the environment, such as illumination variation or “walking persons”. By combining the 2 algorithms we can accurately detect and track objects with a tracking accuracy rate of up to 99% and a frame per second of up to 40 Hz. Thus, a solid foundation is laid for subsequent landing guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Unmanned Aerial Systems)
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Open AccessTechnical Note Perpetual Solar-Powered Flight across Regions around the World for a Year-Long Operation
Aerospace 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/aerospace4020020
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to promote the conventional solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to be used as a satellite known as a pseudo-satellite (pseudolite). The applications of UAV as a satellite are still in the initial stages because these proposed UAVs are required to
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This study aims to promote the conventional solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to be used as a satellite known as a pseudo-satellite (pseudolite). The applications of UAV as a satellite are still in the initial stages because these proposed UAVs are required to fly for long hours at a specified altitude. Any solar-powered system requires extensive mission operation planning to ensure sufficient power to sustain a level flight. This study simulates the optimal UAV configurations at various global locations, and determines the feasibility of a solar-powered UAV to sustain a continuous mission. This study is divided into two different phases. An all-year operation of the average UAV (AVUAV) is simulated in Phase One and is designed specifically for each of 12 cities, namely, Ottawa, Honolulu, Quito, Tahiti, Brasilia, London, Riyadh, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Accra, Port Louis, and Suva. Phase Two is a simulation of a solar-powered UAV design model known as 1UAV, applicable to any city around the world for a year-long flight. The findings state that a single UAV design is sufficient to operate continuously around the world if its detailed mission path planning has been defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Unmanned Aerial Systems)
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