Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 6, Issue 7 (July 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story We present the results of an experiment into Participatory Land Administration (PLA), a VGI [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-45
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial Highlighting Current Trends in Volunteered Geographic Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 202; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070202
Received: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is a growing area of research. This Special Issue aims to capture the main trends in VGI research based on 16 original papers, and distinguishes between two main areas, i.e., those that deal with the characteristics of VGI and
[...] Read more.
Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is a growing area of research. This Special Issue aims to capture the main trends in VGI research based on 16 original papers, and distinguishes between two main areas, i.e., those that deal with the characteristics of VGI and those focused on applications of VGI. The topic of quality assessment and assurance dominates the papers on VGI characteristics, whereas application-oriented work covers three main domains: human behavioral analysis, natural disasters, and land cover/land use mapping. In this Special Issue, therefore, both the challenges and the potentials of VGI are addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Volunteered Geographic Information)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle Addressing Public Law Restrictions within a 3D Cadastral Context
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 182; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070182
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Public law affects contemporary life by imposing various regulations that apply in 3D space. However, such restrictions are either literally described in legal documents or presented on a horizontal plane, resulting in ambiguities, especially in the case of vertically overlapping restrictions with a
[...] Read more.
Public law affects contemporary life by imposing various regulations that apply in 3D space. However, such restrictions are either literally described in legal documents or presented on a horizontal plane, resulting in ambiguities, especially in the case of vertically overlapping restrictions with a significant impact on land management. This paper investigates public law restrictions (PLR) applying to 3D space and their management within a 3D cadastral context. Within this framework, a case study is examined in Greece concerning the establishment of a subway station, focusing on public utilities, archaeological legislation, and building regulations. Relative legal documentation is compiled and mapped in a 3D PLR model, presenting inefficiencies and malfunctions that can be resolved if PLRs are addressed within a 3D cadastral context. Stipulations implying restrictions in 3D space within current legislation are presented, along with the restrictions deriving from the absolute character of ownership right, thus highlighting the significance of 3D definition, modeling and recording of PLRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Prediction of Suspect Location Based on Spatiotemporal Semantics
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 185; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070185
Received: 8 March 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
PDF Full-text (6293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prediction of suspect location enables proactive experiences for crime investigations and offers essential intelligence for crime prevention. However, existing studies have failed to capture the complex social location transition patterns of suspects and lack the capacity to address the issue of data
[...] Read more.
The prediction of suspect location enables proactive experiences for crime investigations and offers essential intelligence for crime prevention. However, existing studies have failed to capture the complex social location transition patterns of suspects and lack the capacity to address the issue of data sparsity. This paper proposes a novel location prediction model called CMoB (Crime Multi-order Bayes model) based on the spatiotemporal semantics to enhance the prediction performance. In particular, the model groups suspects with similar spatiotemporal semantics as one target suspect. Then, their mobility data are applied to estimate Markov transition probabilities of unobserved locations based on a KDE (kernel density estimating) smoothing method. Finally, by integrating the total transition probabilities, which are derived from the multi-order property of the Markov transition matrix, into a Bayesian-based formula, it is able to realize multi-step location prediction for the individual suspect. Experiments with the mobility dataset covering 210 suspects and their 18,754 location records from January to June 2012 in Wuhan City show that the proposed CMoB model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for suspect location prediction in the context of data sparsity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Participatory Land Administration on Customary Lands: A Practical VGI Experiment in Nanton, Ghana
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 186; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070186
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land information is one of the basic requirements for land management activities such as land consolidation. However, the dearth of land information on customary lands limits the development and application of land consolidation. This paper presents and discusses the results of an experiment
[...] Read more.
Land information is one of the basic requirements for land management activities such as land consolidation. However, the dearth of land information on customary lands limits the development and application of land consolidation. This paper presents and discusses the results of an experiment carried out to test the potential of participatory land administration applied on customary lands in support of land consolidation. A brief overview of the evolution of crowdsourced, voluntary, and participatory approaches is provided alongside newly related insights into neogeography and neo-cadastre, and fit-for-purpose and pro-poor land administration. The concept of participatory land administration is then developed in this context. The area of the experiment is in Northern Ghana where the process was developed together with the local farming community. The study involved collecting land information relating to farms over a two-week period, using a mobile app and a satellite image, based on participatory land administration. The results show that Participatory Land Administration can potentially support land consolidation, though further investigation is needed on how it can be integrated into the formal land registration system, into an actual land consolidation project. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Two-Step Method for Missing Spatio-Temporal Data Reconstruction
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 187; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070187
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
PDF Full-text (10538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Missing data reconstruction is a critical step in the analysis and mining of spatio-temporal data; however, few studies comprehensively consider missing data patterns, sample selection and spatio-temporal relationships. As a result, traditional methods often fail to obtain satisfactory accuracy or address high levels
[...] Read more.
Missing data reconstruction is a critical step in the analysis and mining of spatio-temporal data; however, few studies comprehensively consider missing data patterns, sample selection and spatio-temporal relationships. As a result, traditional methods often fail to obtain satisfactory accuracy or address high levels of complexity. To combat these problems, this study developed an effective two-step method for spatio-temporal missing data reconstruction (ST-2SMR). This approach includes a coarse-grained interpolation method for considering missing patterns, which can successfully eliminate the influence of continuous missing data on the overall results. Based on the results of coarse-grained interpolation, a dynamic sliding window selection algorithm was implemented to determine the most relevant sample data for fine-grained interpolation, considering both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Finally, spatio-temporal interpolation results were integrated by using a neural network model. We validated our approach using Beijing air quality data and found that the proposed method outperforms existing solutions in term of estimation accuracy and reconstruction rate. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fusion of Multi-Temporal Interferometric Coherence and Optical Image Data for the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake Damage Assessment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 188; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070188
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
PDF Full-text (19600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Earthquakes are one of the most devastating types of natural disasters, and happen with little to no warning. This study combined Landsat-8 and interferometric ALOS-2 coherence data without training area techniques by classifying the remote sensing ratios of specific features for damage assessment.
[...] Read more.
Earthquakes are one of the most devastating types of natural disasters, and happen with little to no warning. This study combined Landsat-8 and interferometric ALOS-2 coherence data without training area techniques by classifying the remote sensing ratios of specific features for damage assessment. Waterbodies and highly vegetated areas were extracted by the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), respectively, from after-earthquake images in order to improve the accuracy of damage maps. Urban areas were classified from pre-event interferometric coherence data. The affected areas from the earthquake were detected with the normalized difference (ND) between the pre- and co-event interferometric coherence. The results presented three damage types; namely, damage to buildings caused by ground motion, liquefaction, and landslides. The overall accuracy (94%) of the confusion matrix was excellent. Results for urban areas were divided into three damage levels (e.g., none–slight, slight–heavy, heavy–destructive) at a high (90%) overall accuracy level. Moreover, data on buildings damaged by liquefaction and landslides were in good agreement with field survey information. Overall, this study illustrates an effective damage assessment mapping approach that can support post-earthquake management activities for future events, especially in areas where geographical data are sparse. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Urban Heat Island Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka, Based on Landsat Data (1997–2017)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 189; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070189
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at
[...] Read more.
One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at the expense of vegetation cover, surface urban heat island (SUHI) forms and becomes more intense. The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA), Sri Lanka, is one of the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan regions in South Asia. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) in the CMA in the context of the SUHI phenomenon using Landsat data. More specifically, we examined the relationship of LST with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) at three time points (1997, 2007 and 2017). In addition, we also identified environmentally critical areas based on LST and NDVI. We found significant correlations of LST with NDVI (negative) and NDBI (positive) (p < 0.001) across all three time points. Most of the environmentally critical areas are located in the central business district (CBD), near the harbor, across the coastal belt, and along the main transportation network. We recommend that those identified environmentally critical areas be considered in the future urban planning and landscape development of the city. Green spaces can help improve the environmental sustainability of the CMA. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Unveiling E-Bike Potential for Commuting Trips from GPS Traces
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 190; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070190
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Common goals of sustainable mobility approaches are to reduce the need for travel, to facilitate modal shifts, to decrease trip distances and to improve energy efficiency in the transportation systems. Among these issues, modal shift plays an important role for the adoption of
[...] Read more.
Common goals of sustainable mobility approaches are to reduce the need for travel, to facilitate modal shifts, to decrease trip distances and to improve energy efficiency in the transportation systems. Among these issues, modal shift plays an important role for the adoption of vehicles with fewer or zero emissions. Nowadays, the electric bike (e-bike) is becoming a valid alternative to cars in urban areas. However, to promote modal shift, a better understanding of the mobility behaviour of e-bike users is required. In this paper, we investigate the mobility habits of e-bikers using GPS data collected in Belgium from 2014 to 2015. By analysing more than 10,000 trips, we provide insights about e-bike trip features such as: distance, duration and speed. In addition, we offer a deep look into which routes are preferred by bike owners in terms of their physical characteristics and how weather influences e-bike usage. Results show that trips with higher travel distances are performed during working days and are correlated with higher average speeds. Usage patterns extracted from our data set also indicate that e-bikes are preferred for commuting (home-work) and business (work related) trips rather than for recreational trips. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Conceptual Architecture and Service-Oriented Implementation of a Regional Geoportal for Rice Monitoring
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 191; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070191
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
PDF Full-text (9862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural monitoring has greatly benefited from the increased availability of a wide variety of remote-sensed satellite imagery, ground-sensed data (e.g., weather station networks) and crop models, delivering a wealth of actionable information to stakeholders to better streamline and improve agricultural practices. Nevertheless, as
[...] Read more.
Agricultural monitoring has greatly benefited from the increased availability of a wide variety of remote-sensed satellite imagery, ground-sensed data (e.g., weather station networks) and crop models, delivering a wealth of actionable information to stakeholders to better streamline and improve agricultural practices. Nevertheless, as the degree of sophistication of agriculture monitoring systems increases, significant challenges arise due to the handling and integration of multi-scale data sources to present information to decision-makers in a way which is useful, understandable and user friendly. To address these issues, in this article we present the conceptual architecture and service-oriented implementation of a regional geoportal, specifically focused on rice crop monitoring in order to perform unified monitoring with a supporting system at regional scale. It is capable of storing, processing, managing, serving and visualizing monitoring and generated data products with different granularity and originating from different data sources. Specifically, we focus on data sources and data flow, and their importance for and in relation to different stakeholders. In the context of an EU-funded research project, we present an implementation of the regional geoportal for rice monitoring, which is currently in use in Europe’s three largest rice-producing countries, Italy, Greece and Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in GIS and Remote Sensing for Sustainable Agriculture)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cloud-Based Architectures for Auto-Scalable Web Geoportals towards the Cloudification of the GeoVITe Swiss Academic Geoportal
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 192; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070192
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud computing has redefined the way in which Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) and Web geoportals are designed, managed, and maintained. The cloudification of a geoportal represents the migration of a full-stack geoportal application to an internet-based private or public cloud. This work introduces
[...] Read more.
Cloud computing has redefined the way in which Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) and Web geoportals are designed, managed, and maintained. The cloudification of a geoportal represents the migration of a full-stack geoportal application to an internet-based private or public cloud. This work introduces two generic and open cloud-based architectures for auto-scalable Web geoportals, illustrated with the use case of the cloudification efforts of the Swiss academic geoportal GeoVITe. The presented cloud-based architectural designs for auto-scalable Web geoportals consider the most important functional and non-functional requirements and are adapted to both public and private clouds. The availability of such generic cloud-based architectures advances the cloudification of academic SDIs and geoportals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web/Cloud Based Mapping and Geoinformation)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Spatial Context from Open and Online Processing (SCOOP): Geographic, Temporal, and Thematic Analysis of Online Information Sources
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 193; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070193
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
PDF Full-text (6725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet is increasingly a source of data for geographic information systems, as more data becomes linked, available through application programing interfaces (APIs), and more tools become available for handling unstructured web data. While many web data extraction and structuring methods exist, there
[...] Read more.
The Internet is increasingly a source of data for geographic information systems, as more data becomes linked, available through application programing interfaces (APIs), and more tools become available for handling unstructured web data. While many web data extraction and structuring methods exist, there are few examples of comprehensive data processing and analysis systems that link together these tools for geographic analyses. This paper develops a general approach to the development of spatial information context from unstructured and informal web data sources through the joint analysis of the data’s thematic, spatial, and temporal properties. We explore the utility of this derived contextual information through a case study into maritime surveillance. Extraction and processing techniques such as toponym extraction, disambiguation, and temporal information extraction methods are used to construct a semi-structured maritime context database supporting global scale analysis. Geographic, temporal, and thematic content were analyzed, extracted and processed from a list of information sources. A geoweb interface is developed to allow user visualization of extracted information, as well as to support space-time database queries. Joint keyword clustering and spatial clustering methods are used to demonstrate extraction of documents that relate to real world events in official vessel information data. The quality of contextual geospatial information sources is evaluated in reference to known maritime anomalies obtained from authoritative sources. The feasibility of automated context extraction using the proposed framework and linkage to external data using standard clustering tools is demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web/Cloud Based Mapping and Geoinformation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Toward the Development of a Marine Administration System Based on International Standards
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 194; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070194
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
PDF Full-text (10429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS) is based on the
[...] Read more.
The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS) is based on the management needs of the various countries, the marine terms have not been clearly defined. In order to define an MAS that meets the spatial marine requirements, the specific characteristics of the marine environment have to be identified and integrated in a management system. Most publications that address the Marine Cadastre (MC) concept acknowledge the three-dimensional (3D) character of marine spaces and support the need for MC to function as a multipurpose instrument. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) conceptual standard ISO 19152 has been referenced in scholarly and professional works to have explicit relevance to 3D cadastres in exposed land and built environments. However, to date, very little has been done in any of those works to explicitly and comprehensively apply LADM to specific jurisdictional MAS or MC, although the standard purports to be applicable to those areas. Since so far the most comprehensive MC modeling approach is the S-121 Maritime Limits and Boundaries (MLB) Standard, which refers to LADM, this paper proposes several modifications including, among others, the introduction of class marine resources into the model, the integration of data on legal spaces and physical features through external classes, as well as the division of law and administrative sources. Within this context, this paper distinctly presents both appropriate modifications and applications of the IHO S-121 standard to the particular marine and maritime administrative needs of both Greece and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Identify Research Trends in OpenStreetMap
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 195; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070195
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
OpenStreetMap (OSM), based on collaborative mapping, has become a subject of great interest to the academic community, resulting in a considerable body of literature produced by many researchers. In this paper, we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to help identify the emerging research
[...] Read more.
OpenStreetMap (OSM), based on collaborative mapping, has become a subject of great interest to the academic community, resulting in a considerable body of literature produced by many researchers. In this paper, we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to help identify the emerging research trends in OSM. An extensive corpus of 485 academic abstracts of papers published during the period 2007–2016 was used. Five core research areas and fifty research trends were identified in this study. In addition, potential future research directions have been provided to aid geospatial information scientists, technologists and researchers in undertaking future OSM research. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Improved Hybrid Method for Enhanced Road Feature Selection in Map Generalization
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 196; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070196
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Road selection is a critical component of road network generalization that directly affects its accuracy. However, most conventional selection methods are based solely on either a linear or an areal representation mode, often resulting in low selection accuracy and biased structural selection. In
[...] Read more.
Road selection is a critical component of road network generalization that directly affects its accuracy. However, most conventional selection methods are based solely on either a linear or an areal representation mode, often resulting in low selection accuracy and biased structural selection. In this paper we propose an improved hybrid method combining the linear and areal representation modes to increase the accuracy of road selection. The proposed method offers two primary advantages. First, it improves the stroke generation algorithm in a linear representation mode by using an ordinary least square (OLS) model to consider overall information for the roads to be connected. Second, by taking advantage of the areal representation mode, the proposed method partitions road networks and calculates road density based on weighted Voronoi diagrams. Roads were selected using stroke importance and a density threshold. Finally, experiments were conducted comparing the proposed technique with conventional single representation methods. Results demonstrate the increased stroke generation accuracy and improved road selection achieved by this method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Semantic Matching Method for Indoor Trajectory Tracking
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 197; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070197
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development of smartphone sensors has provided rich indoor pedestrian trajectory data for indoor location-based applications. To improve the quality of these collected trajectory data, map matching methods are widely used to correct trajectories. However, these existing matching methods usually cannot achieve
[...] Read more.
The rapid development of smartphone sensors has provided rich indoor pedestrian trajectory data for indoor location-based applications. To improve the quality of these collected trajectory data, map matching methods are widely used to correct trajectories. However, these existing matching methods usually cannot achieve satisfactory accuracy and efficiency and have difficulty in exploiting the rich information contained in the obtained trajectory data. In this study, we proposed a novel semantic matching method for indoor pedestrian trajectory tracking. Similar to our previous work, pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) and human activity recognition (HAR) are used to obtain the raw user trajectory data and the corresponding semantic information involved in the trajectory, respectively. To improve the accuracy and efficiency for user trajectory tracking, a semantic-rich indoor link-node model is then constructed based on the input floor plan, in which navigation-related semantics are extracted and formalized for the following trajectory matching. PDR and HAR are further utilized to segment the trajectory and infer the semantics (e.g., “Turn left”, “Turn right”, and “Go straight”). Finally, the inferred semantic information is matched with the semantic-rich indoor link-node model to derive the correct user trajectory. To accelerate the matching process, the semantics inferred from the trajectory are also assigned weights according to their relative importance. The experiments confirm that the proposed method achieves accurate trajectory tracking results while guaranteeing a high matching efficiency. In addition, the resulting semantic information has great application potential in further indoor location-based services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Modelling and Navigation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing Performance of Three BIM-Based Views of Buildings for Communication and Management of Vertically Stratified Legal Interests
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 198; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070198
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
PDF Full-text (5285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical
[...] Read more.
Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical elements of a building. In order to support 3D digital management and communication of legal arrangements of properties, a number of spatial data models have been recently developed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) domains. While some data models, such as CityGML, IndoorGML or IFC, provide a merely physical representation of the built environment, others, e.g., LADM, mainly rely on legal data elements to support a purely legal view of multistorey buildings. More recently, spatial data models integrating legal and physical notions of multistorey buildings have been proposed to overcome issues associated with purely legal models and purely physical ones. In previous investigations, it has been found that the 3D digital data environment of BIM has the flexibility to utilize either only physical elements or only legal spaces, or an integrated view of both legal spaces and physical elements to represent spatial arrangements of stratified legal interests. In this article, the performance of these three distinct BIM-based representations of legal interests defined inside multistorey buildings is assessed in the context of the Victorian jurisdiction of Australia. The assessment metrics are a number of objects and geometry batches, visualization speed in terms of frame rate, query time, modelling legal boundaries, and visual communication of legal boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modified Neutral Models as Benchmarks to Evaluate the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) Model Performance
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 199; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070199
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessing model performance is a continuous challenge for modelers of land use change. Comparing land use models with two neutral models, including the random constraint match model (RCM) and growing cluster model (GrC) that consider the initial land use patterns using a variety
[...] Read more.
Assessing model performance is a continuous challenge for modelers of land use change. Comparing land use models with two neutral models, including the random constraint match model (RCM) and growing cluster model (GrC) that consider the initial land use patterns using a variety of evaluation metrics, provides a new way to evaluate the accuracy of land use models. However, using only two neutral models is not robust enough for reference maps. A modified neutral model that combines a density-based point pattern analysis and a null neutral model algorithm is introduced. In this case, the modified neutral model generates twenty different spatial pattern results using a random algorithm and mid-point displacement algorithm, respectively. The random algorithm-based modified neutral model (Random_MNM) results decrease regularly with the fragmentation degree from 0 to 1, while the mid-point displacement algorithm-based modified neutral model (MPD_MNM) results decrease in a fluctuating manner with the fragmentation degree. Using the modified neutral model results as benchmarks, a new proposed land use model, the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, for Jilin Province of China from 2003 to 2013 is assessed using the Kappa statistic and Kappain-out statistic for simulation accuracy. The results show that the DLS model output presents higher Kappa and Kappain-out values than all the twenty neutral model results. The map comparison results indicate that the DLS model could simulate land use change more accurately compared to the Random_MNM and MPD_MNM. However, the amount and spatial allocation of land transitions for the DLS model are lower than the actual land use change. Improving the accuracy of the land use transition allocations in the DLS model requires further investigation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A New Look at Public Services Inequality: The Consistency of Neighborhood Context and Citizens’ Perception across Multiple Scales
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 200; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070200
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A challenge in regional inequality is to identify the relative influence of objective neighborhood context on subjective citizens’ attitudes and experiences of place. This paper first presents six groups of hierarchal neighborhoods in optimizing public service inequality (PSI) indicators based on census blocks
[...] Read more.
A challenge in regional inequality is to identify the relative influence of objective neighborhood context on subjective citizens’ attitudes and experiences of place. This paper first presents six groups of hierarchal neighborhoods in optimizing public service inequality (PSI) indicators based on census blocks collected in Quito, Ecuador. Multilevel models were then applied to understand the relative influence of neighborhood-level PSI on citizens’ perceptions of place, including individual-level perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood safety, and self-perceived health status. Our results show that the internal variability of the individual perceptions that is explained by neighborhood context is strongly influenced by the scale of neighborhood units. A spatial consistency between objective neighborhood context and subjective individual perception of place plays a crucial role in propagating mixed-methods approaches (qualitative-quantitative) and improves the spatial interpretation of public services inequality. Neighborhood context and citizens’ perception of place should be integrated to investigate urban segregation, thereby providing insights into the underlying societal inequality phenomenon and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Integrating Global Open Geo-Information for Major Disaster Assessment: A Case Study of the Myanmar Flood
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 201; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070201
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (21233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Major disasters typically impact large areas, cause considerable damages, and result in significant human and economic losses. The timely and accurate estimation of impacts and damages is essential to better understand disaster conditions and to support emergency response operations. Geo-information drawn from various
[...] Read more.
Major disasters typically impact large areas, cause considerable damages, and result in significant human and economic losses. The timely and accurate estimation of impacts and damages is essential to better understand disaster conditions and to support emergency response operations. Geo-information drawn from various sources at multi spatial-temporal scales can be used for disaster assessments through a synthesis of hazard, exposure, and post disaster information based on pertinent approaches. Along with the increased availability of open sourced data and cooperation initiatives, more global scale geo-information, including global land cover datasets, has been produced and can be integrated with other information for disaster dynamic damage assessment (e.g., impact estimation immediately after a disaster occurs, physical damage assessment during the emergency response stage, and comprehensive assessment following an emergency response). Residential areas and arable lands affected by the flood disaster occurring from July to August 2015 in Myanmar were assessed based on satellite images, GlobeLand30 data, and other global open sourced information as a study case. The results show that integrating global open geo-information could serve as a practical and efficient means of assessing damage resulting from major disasters worldwide, especially at the early emergency response stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Applications of Global Land Cover Data)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Nationwide Flood Monitoring for Disaster Risk Reduction Using Multiple Satellite Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 203; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070203
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As part of the contribution to flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood areas, locations, and durations. Multiple satellite-based flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk assessment in disaster risk management.
[...] Read more.
As part of the contribution to flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood areas, locations, and durations. Multiple satellite-based flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk assessment in disaster risk management. In this paper, the MODIS-derived synchronized floodwater index (SfWi) was used to detect the maximum extent of a nationwide flood based on annual time-series data of 2015 in order to maximize the application of optical satellite data. The selected three major rivers—i.e., Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna (GBM), transboundary rivers running through the great floodplain delta lying between Bangladesh and eastern India—show that a propensity of flood risk was revealed by the temporal and spatial dynamics of the maximum flood extent during the 2015 monsoon season. Resultant flood maps showed that SfWi-indicated flood areas were small but more accurate than those derived from the single use of the MODIS-derived water index. The return period of SfWi-indicated maximum flood extent was confirmed to be about 20 years based on historical flood records. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Disaster Hashtags in Social Media
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 204; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070204
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Social media is a rich data source for analyzing the social impact of hazard processes and human behavior in disaster situations; it is used by rescue agencies for coordination and by local governments for the distribution of official information. In this paper, we
[...] Read more.
Social media is a rich data source for analyzing the social impact of hazard processes and human behavior in disaster situations; it is used by rescue agencies for coordination and by local governments for the distribution of official information. In this paper, we propose a method for data mining in Twitter to retrieve messages related to an event. We describe an automated process for the collection of hashtags highly related to the event and specific only to it. We compare our method with existing keyword-based methods and prove that hashtags are good markers for the separation of similar, simultaneous incidents; therefore, the retrieved messages have higher relevancy. The method uses disaster databases to find the location of an event and to estimate the impact area. The proposed method can also be adapted to retrieve messages about other types of events with a known location, such as riots, festivals and exhibitions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Visual Analysis Approach for Inferring Personal Job and Housing Locations Based on Public Bicycle Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 205; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070205
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
PDF Full-text (2681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information concerning the home and workplace of residents is the basis of analyzing the urban job-housing spatial relationship. Traditional methods conduct time-consuming user surveys to obtain personal job and housing location information. Some new methods define rules to detect personal places based on
[...] Read more.
Information concerning the home and workplace of residents is the basis of analyzing the urban job-housing spatial relationship. Traditional methods conduct time-consuming user surveys to obtain personal job and housing location information. Some new methods define rules to detect personal places based on human mobility data. However, because the travel patterns of residents are variable, simple rule-based methods are unable to generalize highly changing and complex travel modes. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis approach to assist the analyzer in inferring personal job and housing locations interactively based on public bicycle data. All users are first clustered to find potential commuting users. Then, several visual views are designed to find the key candidate stations for a specific user, and the visited temporal pattern of stations and the user’s hire behavior are analyzed, which helps with the inference of station semantic meanings. Finally, a number of users’ job and housing locations are detected by the analyzer and visualized. Our approach can manage the complex and diverse cycling habits of users. The effectiveness of the approach is shown through case studies based on a real-world public bicycle dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Automatic Room Segmentation of 3D Laser Data Using Morphological Processing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 206; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070206
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce an automatic room segmentation approach based on morphological processing. The inputs are registered point-clouds obtained from either a static laser scanner or a mobile scanning system, without any required prior information or initial labeling satisfying specific conditions. The
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce an automatic room segmentation approach based on morphological processing. The inputs are registered point-clouds obtained from either a static laser scanner or a mobile scanning system, without any required prior information or initial labeling satisfying specific conditions. The proposed segmentation method’s main concept, based on the assumption that each room is bound by vertical walls, is to project the 3D point cloud onto a 2D binary map and to close all openings (e.g., doorways) to other rooms. This is achieved by creating an initial segment map, skeletonizing the surrounding walls of each segment, and iteratively connecting the closest pixels between the skeletonized walls. By iterating this procedure for all initial segments, the algorithm produces a “watertight” floor map, on which each room can be segmented by a labeling process. Finally, the original 3D points are segmented according to their 2D locations as projected on the segment map. The novel features of our approach are: (1) its robustness against occlusions and clutter in point-cloud input; (2) high segmentation performance regardless of the number of rooms or architectural complexity; and (3) straight segmentation boundary generation, all of which were proved in experiments with various sets of real-world, synthetic, and publicly available data. Additionally, comparisons with the five popular existing methods through both qualitative and quantitative evaluations demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Spatial Analysis Approach for Evaluating the Service Capability of Urban Greenways—A Case Study in Wuhan
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 208; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070208
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A greenway is a low-speed road system built on high-level afforestation, and this system serves as a venue for sightseeing, relaxation, and exercise. In China, greenway planning and construction have been actively and successfully implemented to strengthen the construction of urban human settlements.
[...] Read more.
A greenway is a low-speed road system built on high-level afforestation, and this system serves as a venue for sightseeing, relaxation, and exercise. In China, greenway planning and construction have been actively and successfully implemented to strengthen the construction of urban human settlements. However, a specific method has yet to be used to assess the service capability of urban greenways. On the basis of geographic information systems and geographical spatial data, we propose an approach to evaluate the overall service capability of urban greenways based on three different aspects. In the first aspect, a buffer-based service-level analysis method is applied to statistically analyze population and residential quarter areas within a greenway service coverage area. This aspect can also indicate the service level and scope of urban greenways. In the second aspect, minimum distance-based accessibility analysis method is utilized for the graduation statistics of residential quarter areas in different ranges of reach distance. This aspect can further reveal the service convenience of urban greenways. In the third aspect, a calculation model is built on the basis of regular grids, to analyze the value of comprehensive service capability in each grid, and to produce a spatial distribution map of the comprehensive service capability of urban greenways. This aspect can describe the service quality of urban greenways. The analysis results of these aspects can be integrated to identify service conditions in which an urban greenway is available to urban populations and residential zones, and to obtain the comprehensive service capability value of greenways. This approach can also emphasize the limitations of greenway construction, and thus help urban planners and decision-makers create optimized urban greenway designs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Applications of Location-Based Services and Mobile Technologies in K-12 Classrooms
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 209; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070209
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of location-based services and mobile technologies is increasing in K-12 classrooms. In this article, we describe the history and the current use of these tools in the innovative Geospatial Semester project in Virginia. We share a number of examples where students
[...] Read more.
The use of location-based services and mobile technologies is increasing in K-12 classrooms. In this article, we describe the history and the current use of these tools in the innovative Geospatial Semester project in Virginia. We share a number of examples where students are creating projects of their own interest that use editable feature services, mobile data collection and other cutting-edge technologies. These projects help students build their spatial thinking and problem-solving skills, and help teachers build conceptual understanding in a variety of domains. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Trajectory Data Mining via Cluster Analyses for Tropical Cyclones That Affect the South China Sea
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 210; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070210
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 18 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The equal division of tropical cyclone (TC) trajectory method, the mass moment of the TC trajectory method, and the mixed regression model method are clustering algorithms that use space and shape information from complete TC trajectories. In this article, these three clustering algorithms
[...] Read more.
The equal division of tropical cyclone (TC) trajectory method, the mass moment of the TC trajectory method, and the mixed regression model method are clustering algorithms that use space and shape information from complete TC trajectories. In this article, these three clustering algorithms were applied in a TC trajectory clustering analysis to identify the TCs that affected the South China Sea (SCS) from 1949 to 2014. According to their spatial position and shape similarity, these TC trajectories were classified into five trajectory classes, including three westward straight-line movement trajectory clusters and two northward re-curving trajectory clusters. These clusters show different characteristics in their genesis position, heading, landfall location, TC intensity, lifetime and seasonality distribution. The clustering results indicate that these algorithms have different characteristics. The equal division of the trajectory method provides better clustering result generally. The approach is simple and direct, and trajectories in the same class were consistent in shape and heading. The regression mixture model algorithm has a solid theoretical mathematical foundation, and it can maintain good spatial consistency among trajectories in the class. The mass moment of the trajectory method shows overall consistency with the equal division of the trajectory method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Method for Estimating Surveillance Video Georeferences
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 211; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070211
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of a surveillance camera video with a three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS) requires the georeferencing of that video. Since a video consists of separate frames, each frame must be georeferenced. To georeference a video frame, we rely on the information
[...] Read more.
The integration of a surveillance camera video with a three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS) requires the georeferencing of that video. Since a video consists of separate frames, each frame must be georeferenced. To georeference a video frame, we rely on the information about the camera view at the moment that the frame was captured. A camera view in 3D space is completely determined by the camera position, orientation, and field-of-view. Since the accurate measuring of these parameters can be extremely difficult, in this paper we propose a method for their estimation based on matching video frame coordinates of certain point features with their 3D geographic locations. To obtain these coordinates, we rely on high-resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM) of the area of interest. Once an adequate number of points are matched, Levenberg–Marquardt iterative optimization is applied to find the most suitable video frame georeference, i.e., position and orientation of the camera. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Semantic-Geographic Trajectory Pattern Mining Based on a New Similarity Measurement
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 212; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070212
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trajectory pattern mining is becoming increasingly popular because of the development of ubiquitous computing technology. Trajectory data contain abundant semantic and geographic information that reflects people’s movement patterns, i.e., who is performing a certain type of activity when and where. However, the variety
[...] Read more.
Trajectory pattern mining is becoming increasingly popular because of the development of ubiquitous computing technology. Trajectory data contain abundant semantic and geographic information that reflects people’s movement patterns, i.e., who is performing a certain type of activity when and where. However, the variety and complexity of people’s movement activity and the large size of trajectory datasets make it difficult to mine valuable trajectory patterns. Moreover, most existing trajectory similarity measurements only consider a portion of the information contained in trajectory data. The patterns obtained cannot be interpreted well in terms of both semantic meaning and geographic distributions. As a result, these patterns cannot be used accurately for recommendation systems or other applications. This paper introduces a novel concept of the semantic-geographic pattern that considers both semantic and geographic meaning simultaneously. A flexible density-based clustering algorithm with a new trajectory similarity measurement called semantic intensity is used to mine these semantic-geographic patterns. Comparative experiments on check-in data from the Sina Weibo service demonstrate that semantic intensity can effectively measure both semantic and geographic similarities among trajectories. The resulting patterns are more accurate and easy to interpret. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Urban Studies)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Integrating Decentralized Indoor Evacuation with Information Depositories in the Field
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 213; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070213
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
PDF Full-text (2008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information
[...] Read more.
The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information via exploration and knowledge sharing by peer-to-peer communication. Peer-to-peer communication, however, relies on the chance that people come into communication range with each other. This chance can be low. To bridge between people being not at the same time at the same places, this paper suggests information depositories at strategic locations to improve information sharing. Information depositories collect the knowledge acquired by the smartphones of evacuees passing by, maintain this information, and convey it to other passing-by evacuees. Multi-agent simulation implementing these depositories in an indoor environment shows that integrating depositories improves evacuation performance: It enhances the risk awareness and consequently increases the chance that people survive and reduces their evacuation time. For evacuating dynamic events, deploying depositories at staircases has been shown more effective than deploying them in corridors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Modelling and Navigation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Patrimonial Conservation of a Quito Suburb without Altering Its Commercial Structure by Means of a Centrality Measure for Urban Networks
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 215; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070215
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
PDF Full-text (17257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In about 1940, Quito’s urban planning department contemplated the creation of a new suburb called Villaflora following the garden city model: homes in connection with nature but also near services. In Villaflora we do not find monumental elements that characterize patrimonial architecture; the
[...] Read more.
In about 1940, Quito’s urban planning department contemplated the creation of a new suburb called Villaflora following the garden city model: homes in connection with nature but also near services. In Villaflora we do not find monumental elements that characterize patrimonial architecture; the value of Villaflora’s patrimony is in its urban model characterized by some architectonic elements. However, Villaflora is valuable because it is the result of a unique urban model. Over the years, the suburb has suffered profound degradation from the point of view of its patrimonial conservation. Hence, we propose an urban intervention in the suburb that contemplates the restoration of some important elements in the urban layout, without altering the commercial structure of the same. To accomplish this task we perform a study of the heritage conservation of each of the buildings of the suburb, as well as a study of the commercial activity that is developed in the suburb in order to determine those areas with the highest commercial activity and as a consequence, a greater presence of people in the streets and public spaces. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Popular Tourist Attraction Discovering Approach Based on Geo-Tagged Social Media Big Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 216; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070216
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the big data era, the social media data that contain users’ geographical locations are growing explosively. These kinds of spatiotemporal data provide a new perspective for us to observe the human movement behavior. By mining such spatiotemporal data, we can incorporate the
[...] Read more.
In the big data era, the social media data that contain users’ geographical locations are growing explosively. These kinds of spatiotemporal data provide a new perspective for us to observe the human movement behavior. By mining such spatiotemporal data, we can incorporate the users’ collective wisdom, build novel services and bring convenience to people. Through spatial clustering of the original user locations, both the ‘natural’ boundaries and the human activity information of the tourist attractions are generated, which facilitate performing popularity analysis of tourist attractions and extracting the travelers’ spatio-temporal patterns or travel laws. On the one hand, the potential extracted knowledge could provide decision supports to the tourism management department in both tourism planning and resource development; on the other hand, the travel preferences are able to be extracted from the clustering-generated attractions, and thus, intelligent tourism recommendation services could be developed for the tourist to promote the realization of ‘smart tourism’. Hence, this paper proposes a new method for discovering popular tourist attractions, which extracts hotspots through integrating spatial clustering and text mining approaches. We carry out tourist attraction discovery experiments based on the Flickr geotagged images within the urban area of Beijing from 2005 to 2016. The results show that compared with the traditional DBSCAN method, this novel approach can distinguish adjacent high-density areas when discovering popular tourist attractions and has better adaptability in the case of an uneven density distribution. In addition, based on the finding results of scenic hotspots, this paper analyzes the popularity distribution laws of Beijing’s tourist attractions under different temporal and weather contexts. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle SCMDOT: Spatial Clustering with Multiple Density-Ordered Trees
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 217; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070217
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid explosion of information based on location, spatial clustering plays an increasingly significant role in this day and age as an important technique in geographical data analysis. Most existing spatial clustering algorithms are limited by complicated spatial patterns, which have difficulty
[...] Read more.
With the rapid explosion of information based on location, spatial clustering plays an increasingly significant role in this day and age as an important technique in geographical data analysis. Most existing spatial clustering algorithms are limited by complicated spatial patterns, which have difficulty in discovering clusters with arbitrary shapes and uneven density. In order to overcome such limitations, we propose a novel clustering method called Spatial Clustering with Multiple Density-Ordered Trees (SCMDOT). Motivated by the idea of the Density-Ordered Tree (DOT), we firstly represent the original dataset by the means of constructing Multiple Density-Ordered Trees (MDOT). In the constructing process, we impose additional constraints to control the growth of each Density-Ordered Tree, ensuring that they all have high spatial similarity. Furthermore, a series of MDOT can be successively generated from regions of sparse areas to the dense areas, where each Density-Ordered Tree, also treated as a sub-tree, represents a cluster. In the merging process, the final clusters are obtained by repeatedly merging a suitable pair of clusters until they satisfy the expected clustering result. In addition, a heuristic strategy is applied during the process of our algorithm for suitability for special applications. The experiments on synthetic and real-world spatial databases are utilised to demonstrate the performance of our proposed method. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Matrix-Based Structure for Vario-Scale Vector Representation over a Wide Range of Map Scales: The Case of River Network Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 218; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070218
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
PDF Full-text (9431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The representation of vector data at variable scales has been widely applied in geographic information systems and map-based services. When the scale changes across a wide range, a complex generalization that involves multiple operations is required to transform the data. To present such
[...] Read more.
The representation of vector data at variable scales has been widely applied in geographic information systems and map-based services. When the scale changes across a wide range, a complex generalization that involves multiple operations is required to transform the data. To present such complex generalization, we proposed a matrix model to combine different generalization operations into an integration. This study was carried on a set of river network data, where two operations, i.e., network pruning accompanied with river simplification, were hierarchically constructed as the rows and columns of a matrix. The correspondence between generalization operations and scale, and the scale linkage of multiple operations were also explicitly defined. In addition, we developed a vario-scale data structure to store the generalized river network data based on the proposed matrix. The matrix model was validated and assessed by a comparison with traditional methods that conduct generalization operations in sequence. It was shown that the matrix model enabled complex generalization with good generalization quality. Taking advantage of the corresponding vario-scale data structure, the river network data could be obtained at any arbitrary scale, and the vario-scale representation was achieved across a wide scale range. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Robust and Parameter-Free Algorithm for Constructing Pit-Free Canopy Height Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 219; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070219
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data pits commonly appear in lidar-derived canopy height models (CHMs) owing to the penetration ability of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) into tree crowns. They have a seriously negative effect on the quality of tree detection and subsequent biophysical measurements. In this
[...] Read more.
Data pits commonly appear in lidar-derived canopy height models (CHMs) owing to the penetration ability of airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) into tree crowns. They have a seriously negative effect on the quality of tree detection and subsequent biophysical measurements. In this study, we propose an algorithm based on robust locally weighted regression and robust z-scores for the construction of a pit-free CHM. A significant advantage of the new algorithm is that it is parameter free, which makes it efficient and robust for practical applications. Simulated and airborne lidar-derived data sets are employed to assess the performance of the new method for CHM construction, and its results are compared to those of three classical methods, namely the natural neighbor (NN) interpolation of the highest point method (HPM), mean filter, and median filter. The results from the simulated data set demonstrate that our algorithm is more accurate compared to the three classical methods for generating pit-free CHMs in the presence of data pits. CHM construction using the lidar-derived data set shows that, compared to the classical methods, the new method has a better ability to remove data pits as well as preserving the edges, shapes, and structures of canopy gaps and crowns. Moreover, the proposed method performs better compared to the classical methods in deriving plot-level maximum tree heights from CHMs. Thus, the new method shows high potential for pit-free CHM construction. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Array Database Approach for Earth Observation Data Management and Processing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 220; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070220
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past few years, Earth Observation (EO) has been continuously generating much spatiotemporal data that serves for societies in resource surveillance, environment protection, and disaster prediction. The proliferation of EO data poses great challenges in current approaches for data management and processing.
[...] Read more.
Over the past few years, Earth Observation (EO) has been continuously generating much spatiotemporal data that serves for societies in resource surveillance, environment protection, and disaster prediction. The proliferation of EO data poses great challenges in current approaches for data management and processing. Nowadays, the Array Database technologies show great promise in managing and processing EO Big Data. This paper suggests storing and processing EO data as multidimensional arrays based on state-of-the-art array database technologies. A multidimensional spatiotemporal array model is proposed for EO data with specific strategies for mapping spatial coordinates to dimensional coordinates in the model transformation. It allows consistent query semantics in databases and improves the in-database computing by adopting unified array models in databases for EO data. Our approach is implemented as an extension to SciDB, an open-source array database. The test shows that it gains much better performance in the computation compared with traditional databases. A forest fire simulation study case is presented to demonstrate how the approach facilitates the EO data management and in-database computation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Robust Indoor Mobile Localization with a Semantic Augmented Route Network Graph
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 221; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070221
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, using smartphones to determine pedestrian locations in indoor environments is an extensively promising technique for improving context-aware applications. However, the applicability and accuracy of the conventional approaches are still limited due to infrastructure-dependence, and there is seldom consideration of the
[...] Read more.
In recent years, using smartphones to determine pedestrian locations in indoor environments is an extensively promising technique for improving context-aware applications. However, the applicability and accuracy of the conventional approaches are still limited due to infrastructure-dependence, and there is seldom consideration of the semantic information inherently existing in maps. In this paper, a semantically-constrained low-complexity sensor fusion approach is proposed for the estimation of the user trajectory within the framework of the smartphone-based indoor pedestrian localization, which takes into account the semantic information of indoor space and its compatibility with user motions. The user trajectory is established by pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) from the mobile inertial sensors, in which the proposed semantic augmented route network graph with adaptive edge length is utilized to provide semantic constraint for the trajectory calibration using a particle filter algorithm. The merit of the proposed method is that it not only exploits the knowledge of the indoor space topology, but also exhausts the rich semantic information and the user motion in a specific indoor space for PDR accumulation error elimination, and can extend the applicability for diverse pedestrian step length modes. Two experiments are conducted in the real indoor environment to verify of the proposed approach. The results confirmed that the proposed method can achieve highly acceptable pedestrian localization results using only the accelerometer and gyroscope embedded in the phones, while maintaining an enhanced accuracy of 1.23 m, with the indoor semantic information attached to each pedestrian’s motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Modelling and Navigation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Accuracy Improvement of DGPS for Low-Cost Single-Frequency Receiver Using Modified Flächen Korrektur Parameter Correction
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 222; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070222
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
PDF Full-text (10069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A differential global positioning system (DGPS) is one of the most widely used augmentation systems for a low-cost L1 (1575.42 MHz) single-frequency GPS receiver. The positioning accuracy of a low-cost GPS receiver decreases because of the spatial decorrelation between the reference station (RS)
[...] Read more.
A differential global positioning system (DGPS) is one of the most widely used augmentation systems for a low-cost L1 (1575.42 MHz) single-frequency GPS receiver. The positioning accuracy of a low-cost GPS receiver decreases because of the spatial decorrelation between the reference station (RS) of the DGPS and the users. Hence, a network real-time kinematic (RTK) solution is used to reduce the decorrelation error in the current DGPS system. Among the various network RTK methods, the Flächen Korrektur parameter (FKP) is used to complement the current DGPS, because its concept and system configuration are simple and the size of additional data required for the network RTK is small. The FKP was originally developed for the carrier-phase measurements of high-cost GPS receivers; thus, it should be modified to be used in the DGPS of low-cost GPS receivers. We propose an FKP-DGPS algorithm as a new augmentation method for the low-cost GPS receivers by integrating the conventional DGPS correction with the modified FKP correction to mitigate the positioning error due to the spatial decorrelation. A real-time FKP-DGPS software was developed and several real-time tests were conducted. The test results show that the positioning accuracy of the DGPS was improved by a maximum of 40%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping for Autonomous Vehicles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Overview of the Croatian Land Administration System and the Possibilities for Its Upgrade to 3D by Existing Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 223; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070223
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of
[...] Read more.
This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of the application of these regulations on the present situation of registration in cadastre and land register were considered. This paper also explores current legal, institutional, and technical solutions implemented in the Croatian Land Administration System and the possibilities for its upgrade to 3D cadastre. Implementation of any technological option to establish a 3D cadastre is tightly related to legislation. Hence, legislation and technological options are considered to find solutions that will be possible to implement. One suggestion presented in this paper was to use other sources of 3D data such as topographic signs or symbols used to represent topographic objects on 2D maps. In combination with other geodetic and cartographic products, useful information can be obtained, often quite relevant to provide a reference context for a 3D cadastre. Topographic signs on topographic maps and on other geodetic products provide a representation of complex real-world situations (tunnels, bridges, overpasses etc.) that are not usually presented on cadastral maps. This paper presents the possibility of utilizing those topographic signs to achieve the first steps towards establishing a 3D cadastre. Furthermore, this study proposes the establishment of a 3D Multipurpose Land Administration System as the most efficient system of land administration in a time when spatial information is easier to obtain than ever before and traditional real estate registers are subject to frequent and demanding changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Towards Enhancing Integrated Pest Management Based on Volunteered Geographic Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 224; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070224
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrated pest management (IPM) involves integrating multiple pest control methods based on site information obtained through inspection, monitoring, and reports. IPM has been deployed to achieve the judicious use of pesticides and has become one of the most important methods of securing agricultural
[...] Read more.
Integrated pest management (IPM) involves integrating multiple pest control methods based on site information obtained through inspection, monitoring, and reports. IPM has been deployed to achieve the judicious use of pesticides and has become one of the most important methods of securing agricultural productivity. Despite the efforts made to strengthen IPM during the past decades, overuse as well as indiscriminate use of pesticides is still common. This problem is particularly serious in underserved farming communities which suffer from ineffectiveness with respect to pest management information collection and dissemination. The recent development of volunteered geographic information (VGI) offers an opportunity to the general public to create and receive ubiquitous, cost-effective, and timely geospatial information. Therefore, this study proposes to enhance IPM through establishing a VGI-based IPM. As a starting point of this line of research, this study explored how such geospatial information can contribute to IPM enhancement. Based on this, a conceptual framework of VGI interaction was built to guide the establishment of VGI-based IPM. To implement VGI-based IPM, a mobile phone platform was developed. In addition, a case study was conducted in the town of Shuibian in Jiangxi province of China to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In the case study, by analyzing infestation incidents of an overwintering outbreak of striped rice stem borers voluntarily reported by farmers through mobile phones, spatiotemporal infestation patterns of the borers throughout the study area were revealed and disseminated to the farmers. These patterns include the dates and degree-days the pest infestations intensified, and the orientation or spatial structural variations of the clustering of the infestations. This case study showcased the unique merit of VGI in enhancing IPM, namely the acquisition of previously unrecorded spatial data in a cost-effective and real-time manner for discovering and disseminating previously unknown pest management knowledge. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle FOSS Tools and Applications for Education in Geospatial Sciences
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 225; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070225
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While the theory and implementation of geographic information systems (GIS) have a history of more than 50 years, the development of dedicated educational tools and applications in this field is more recent. This paper presents a free and open source software (FOSS) approach
[...] Read more.
While the theory and implementation of geographic information systems (GIS) have a history of more than 50 years, the development of dedicated educational tools and applications in this field is more recent. This paper presents a free and open source software (FOSS) approach for education in the geospatial disciplines, which has been used over the last 20 years at two Italian universities. The motivations behind the choice of FOSS are discussed with respect to software availability and development, as well as educational material licensing. Following this philosophy, a wide range of educational tools have been developed, covering topics from numerical cartography and GIS principles to the specifics regarding different systems for the management and analysis of spatial data. Various courses have been implemented for diverse recipients, ranging from professional training workshops to PhD courses. Feedback from the students of those courses provides an invaluable assessment of the effectiveness of the approach, supplying at the same time directions for further improvement. Finally, lessons learned after 20 years are discussed, highlighting how the management of educational materials can be difficult even with a very open approach to licensing. Overall, the use of free and open source software for geospatial (FOSS4G) science provides a clear advantage over other approaches, not only simplifying software and data management, but also ensuring that all of the information related to system design and implementation is available. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Collaborative Geodesign and Spatial Optimization for Fragmentation-Free Land Allocation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 226; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070226
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
PDF Full-text (4412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Demand for agricultural food production is projected to increase dramatically in the coming decades, putting at risk our clean water supply and prospects for sustainable development. Fragmentation-free land allocation (FF-LA) aims to improve returns on ecosystem services by determining both space partitioning of
[...] Read more.
Demand for agricultural food production is projected to increase dramatically in the coming decades, putting at risk our clean water supply and prospects for sustainable development. Fragmentation-free land allocation (FF-LA) aims to improve returns on ecosystem services by determining both space partitioning of a study area and choice of land-use/land-cover management practice (LMP) for each partition under a budget constraint. In the context of large-scale industrialized food production, fragmentation (e.g., tiny LMP patches) discourages the use of modern farm equipment (e.g., 10- to 20-m-wide combine harvesters) and must be avoided in the allocation. FF-LA is a computationally challenging NP-hard problem. We introduce three frameworks for land allocation planning, namely collaborative geodesign, spatial optimization and a hybrid model of the two, to help stakeholders resolve the dilemma between increasing food production capacity and improving water quality. A detailed case study is carried out at the Seven Mile Creek watershed in the midwestern US. The results show the challenges of generating near-optimal solutions through collaborative geodesign, and the potential benefits of spatial optimization in assisting the decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatiotemporal Computing for Sustainable Ecosystem)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Evacuation and Rescue Capabilities of Urban Open Space from a Land Use Perspective: A Case Study in Wuhan, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 227; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070227
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
PDF Full-text (8530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes an innovative integrated method for evaluating the evacuation and rescue capabilities of open spaces through a case study in Wuhan, China. A dual-scenario network analysis model was set up to calculate travel time among communities, open spaces, and rescue facilities
[...] Read more.
This study proposes an innovative integrated method for evaluating the evacuation and rescue capabilities of open spaces through a case study in Wuhan, China. A dual-scenario network analysis model was set up to calculate travel time among communities, open spaces, and rescue facilities during peak and non-peak hours. The distribution of traffic flow was derived on the basis of a gravity model and used to construct supply-demand indexes (SDIs). SDIs such as evacuation (ESDI), rescue (RSDI), and comprehensive SDIs (CSDI) were used to evaluate the suitability of open space locations. This study drew five major findings as follows: (1) ESDI, RSDI, and CSDI can effectively evaluate the spatial suitability of open spaces when these SDIs are integrated with the gravity model. (2) The quadrant distribution analysis of ESDI can be an effective method for determining the reasons for the change in values in the two traffic scenarios and for helping planners in adjusting their policies to enhance the capability of an area. (3) The impact of the different β values on SDIs can show positive, negative, and inconspicuous correlations with large, moderate, and minimal variations, respectively. (4) The analysis of the supply-demand relationship of open spaces in Wuhan indicates a spatial mismatch in comprehensive evacuation and rescue capacities. (5) Traffic congestion can be a significant impact factor on evacuation and rescue capabilities but not on comprehensive capability. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparative Assessment of Three Nonlinear Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in a Coal Mine Area
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 228; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070228
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
PDF Full-text (2944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence
[...] Read more.
Landslide susceptibility mapping is the first and most important step involved in landslide hazard assessment. The purpose of the present study is to compare three nonlinear approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping and test whether coal mining has a significant impact on landslide occurrence in coal mine areas. Landslide data collected by the Bureau of Land and Resources are represented by the X, Y coordinates of its central point; causative factors were calculated from topographic and geologic maps, as well as satellite imagery. The five-fold cross-validation method was adopted and the landslide/non-landslide datasets were randomly split into a ratio of 80:20. From this, five subsets for 20 times were acquired for training and validating models by GIS Geostatistical analysis methods, and all of the subsets were employed in a spatially balanced sample design. Three landslide models were built using support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), and artificial neural network (ANN) models by selecting the median of the performance measures. Then, the three fitted models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves (AUC) and the performance measures. The results show that the prediction accuracies are between 73.43% and 87.45% in the training stage, and 67.16% to 73.13% in the validating stage for the three models. AUCs vary from 0.807 to 0.906 and 0.753 to 0.944 in the two stages, respectively. Additionally, three landslide susceptibility maps were obtained by classifying the range of landslide probabilities into four classes representing low (0–0.02), medium (0.02–0.1), high (0.1–0.85), and very high (0.85–1) probabilities of landslides. For the distributions of landslide and area percentages under different susceptibility standards, the SVM model has more relative balance in the four classes compared to the LR and the ANN models. The result reveals that the SVM model possesses better prediction efficiency than the other two models. Furthermore, the five factors, including lithology, distance from the road, slope angle, elevation, and land-use types, are the most suitable conditioning factors for landslide susceptibility mapping in the study area. The mining disturbance factor has little contribution to all models, because the mining method in this area is underground mining, so the mining depth is too deep to affect the stability of the slopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Geo-Information Technologies for Anticipatory Computing)
Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessErratum Erratum: Zhai, J., et al. Quality Assessment Method for Linear Feature Simplification Based on Multi-Scale Spatial Uncertainty. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 2017, 6, 184
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 207; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070207
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The editorial team of the journal International Journal of Geo-Information (IJGI) would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [1]: [...]
Full article
Open AccessCase Report Three-Dimensional Modeling and Indoor Positioning for Urban Emergency Response
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 214; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070214
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional modeling of building environments and indoor positioning is essential for emergency response in cities. Traditional ground-based measurement methods, such as geodetic astronomy, total stations, and global positioning system (GPS) receivers, cannot meet the demand for high precision positioning and it is therefore
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional modeling of building environments and indoor positioning is essential for emergency response in cities. Traditional ground-based measurement methods, such as geodetic astronomy, total stations, and global positioning system (GPS) receivers, cannot meet the demand for high precision positioning and it is therefore essential to conduct multiple-angle data-acquisition and establish three-dimensional spatial models. In this paper, a rapid modeling technology is introduced, which includes multiple-angle remote sensing image acquisition based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), an algorithm to remove linear and planar foregrounds before reconstructing the backgrounds, and a three-dimensional modeling (3DM) framework. Additionally, an indoor 3DM technology is introduced based on building design drawings, and an indoor positioning technology is developed using iBeacon technology. Finally, a prototype system of the indoor and outdoor positioning-service system in an urban firefighting rescue scenario is introduced to demonstrate the value of the method proposed in this paper. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top