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Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Rising Rates of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leading to Liver Transplantation in Baby Boomer Generation with Chronic Hepatitis C, Alcohol Liver Disease, and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Related Liver Disease
Diseases 2017, 5(4), 20; doi:10.3390/diseases5040020
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
We aim to study the impact of the baby boomer (BB) generation, a birth-specific cohort (born 1945–1965) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related liver transplantation (LT) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We performed a
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We aim to study the impact of the baby boomer (BB) generation, a birth-specific cohort (born 1945–1965) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related liver transplantation (LT) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We performed a retrospective analysis using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)/Organ Procurement Transplant Network (OPTN) database from 2003 to 2014 to compare HCC-related liver transplant surgery trends between two cohorts—the BB and non-BB—with a secondary diagnosis of HCV, ALD, or NASH. From 2003–2014, there were a total of 8313 liver transplant recipients for the indication of HCC secondary to HCV, ALD, or NASH. Of the total, 6658 (80.1%) HCC-related liver transplant recipients were BB. The number of liver transplant surgeries for the indication of HCC increased significantly in NASH (+1327%), HCV (+382%), and ALD (+286%) during the study period. The proportion of BB who underwent LT for HCC was the highest in HCV (84.7%), followed by NASH (70.3%) and ALD (64.7%). The recommendations for birth-cohort specific HCV screening stemmed from a greater understanding of the high prevalence of chronic HCV and HCV-related HCC within BB. The rising number of HCC-related LT among BB with ALD and NASH suggests the need for increased awareness and improved preventative screening/surveillance measures within NASH and ALD cohorts as well. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Anacetrapib, a New CETP Inhibitor: The New Tool for the Management of Dyslipidemias?
Diseases 2017, 5(4), 21; doi:10.3390/diseases5040021
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors significantly increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol levels and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) cholesterol concentration. However, three drugs of this class failed to show a decrease of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. A new CETP
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Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors significantly increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol levels and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) cholesterol concentration. However, three drugs of this class failed to show a decrease of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. A new CETP inhibitor, anacetrapib, substantially increases HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels with a profound increase of large HDL2 particles, but also pre-β HDL particles, decreases LDL cholesterol levels mainly due to increased catabolism of LDL particles through LDL receptors, decreases lipoprotein a (Lp(a)) levels owing to a decreased Apo (a) production and, finally, decreases modestly triglyceride (TRG) levels due to increased lipolysis and increased receptor-mediated catabolism of TRG-rich particles. Interestingly, anacetrapib may be associated with a beneficial effect on carbohydrate homeostasis. Furthermore, the Randomized EValuation of the Effects of Anacetrapib Through Lipid-modification (REVEAL) trial showed that anacetrapib administration on top of statin treatment significantly reduces cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease without any significant increase of adverse events despite its long half-life. Thus, anacetrapib could be useful for the effective management of dyslipidemias in high-risk patients that do not attain their LDL cholesterol target or are statin intolerable, while its role in patients with increased Lp(a) levels remains to be established. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperEssay The Heart Club: How Cyanotic Heart Disease Was Reframed
Diseases 2017, 5(4), 22; doi:10.3390/diseases5040022
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
In April 1948, the thoracic surgeon, Russell Brock, convened a meeting at Guy’s Hospital [...] Full article
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