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Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Review

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Open AccessReview Epigenetic Mechanisms of Tamoxifen Resistance in Luminal Breast Cancer
Diseases 2017, 5(3), 16; doi:10.3390/diseases5030016
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cancer is the most frequent subtype representing more than 70% of breast cancers. These tumors respond to endocrine therapy
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Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cancer is the most frequent subtype representing more than 70% of breast cancers. These tumors respond to endocrine therapy targeting the ER pathway including selective ER modulators (SERMs), selective ER downregulators (SERDs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). However, resistance to endocrine therapy associated with disease progression remains a significant therapeutic challenge. The precise mechanisms of endocrine resistance remain unclear. This is partly due to the complexity of the signaling pathways that influence the estrogen-mediated regulation in breast cancer. Mechanisms include ER modifications, alteration of coregulatory function and modification of growth factor signaling pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive luminal breast cancer. We highlight the effect of epigenetic changes on some of the key mechanisms involved in tamoxifen resistance, such as tumor-cell heterogeneity, ER signaling pathway and cancer stem cells (CSCs). It became increasingly recognized that CSCs are playing an important role in driving metastasis and tamoxifen resistance. Understanding the mechanism of tamoxifen resistance will provide insight into the design of novel strategies to overcome the resistance and make further improvements in breast cancer therapeutics. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report A Case of Systemic Infection Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes Oral Infection in an Edentulous Patient
Diseases 2017, 5(3), 17; doi:10.3390/diseases5030017
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Infections in the oral and maxillofacial region can sometimes extend beyond the oral cavity, with serious consequences. Most oral infections are odontogenic, occurring through the root apex of the tooth or the periodontal pocket. It thus makes sense that edentulous patients have
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Background: Infections in the oral and maxillofacial region can sometimes extend beyond the oral cavity, with serious consequences. Most oral infections are odontogenic, occurring through the root apex of the tooth or the periodontal pocket. It thus makes sense that edentulous patients have a much lower risk of oral bacterial infection. For this reason, while there are many reports on systemic infections caused by oral infections, few of these describe such infections in edentulous patients. Case presentation: We present a case of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis followed by sepsis due to Streptococcus pyogenes infection in an 89-year-old Japanese edentulous woman. S. pyogenes was detected in the wound of left maxilla and the blood sample. S. pyogenes has been reported to be one of the most common and influential aerobic bacteria associated with deep neck infection and subsequent systemic infection. Left maxillary sinusitis was observed, and this could be the origin of the S. pyogenes infection. S. pyogenes derived from the sinusitis and leaked to the oral cavity might have caused systemic infection through wounding of the oral mucosa. Fortunately, intensive antibiotic therapy was effective, and the patient recovered without any surgical procedures. Conclusions: We experienced a rare case of oral and maxillofacial cellulitis followed by sepsis due to a Streptococcus pyogenes infection in an old edentulous woman. This result indicated that, while edentulous patients are considered to have no risk of odontogenic infection, they still carry a risk of bacterial infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
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Open AccessCommentary The Evolution of Pediatric Disease—A Moving Target in Public Health
Diseases 2017, 5(3), 18; doi:10.3390/diseases5030018
Received: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
There is a growing threat in the re-emergence of diseases that impact pediatric demographics. While major strides have been made in the field of childhood cancers, there are still more questions than answers. In addition, public resistance to recommended practices related to childhood
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There is a growing threat in the re-emergence of diseases that impact pediatric demographics. While major strides have been made in the field of childhood cancers, there are still more questions than answers. In addition, public resistance to recommended practices related to childhood vaccinations fueled by misinformation has allowed infectious diseases to resurface in developed nations. Meanwhile, climate change and other destabilizing factors are shifting vector populations and driving the emergence of new diseases. Herein we call upon the community of human health researchers to confront the evolving specter of pediatric disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Diseases)
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective Flavonoids and Their Metabolites: Prevention in Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes
Diseases 2017, 5(3), 19; doi:10.3390/diseases5030019
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
The occurrence of atherosclerosis and diabetes is expanding rapidly worldwide. These two metabolic disorders often co-occur, and are part of what is often referred to as the metabolic syndrome. In order to determine future therapies, we propose that molecular mechanisms should be investigated.
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The occurrence of atherosclerosis and diabetes is expanding rapidly worldwide. These two metabolic disorders often co-occur, and are part of what is often referred to as the metabolic syndrome. In order to determine future therapies, we propose that molecular mechanisms should be investigated. Once the aetiology of the metabolic syndrome is clear, a nutritional intervention should be assessed. Here we focus on the protective effects of some dietary flavonoids, and their metabolites. Further studies may also pave the way for development of novel drug candidates. Full article
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