Next Article in Journal
The Vascular Factor Plays the Main Role in the Cause of Pain in Men with Chronic Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: The Results of Clinical Trial on Thermobalancing Therapy
Previous Article in Journal
An Overview of Dietary Interventions and Strategies to Optimize the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Diseases 2017, 5(4), 24; doi:10.3390/diseases5040024

Relationship between Bone Health Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Risk in a General Adult Population

Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana G Monasterio and Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, CNR via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [427 KB, uploaded 25 October 2017]   |  


Purpose/Introduction: Osteoporosis (OP) and cardiovascular (CV) disease emerge as closely related conditions, showing common risk factors and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone health markers (BHM) and individual CV risk factors and overall CV risk (FRAMINGHAM-FRS, and PROCAM scores) in a general adult population. Methods: In 103 subjects (21 males; age: 56 ± 12 years), vitamin D (25(OH)D), osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phospatase (BALP), procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP), CTx-telopeptide, as well clinical history and life style were evaluated. Results: Aging (p < 0.001) and glycemia (p < 0.05) emerged as independent 25(OH)D predictors. Aging (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.05), and obesity (p < 0.05) represented independent OC determinants. Aging (p < 0.05) was the only independent BALP determinant. After multivariate adjustment, low 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL) (Odds ratio OR (95% confidence intervals CI)) (5 (1.4–18) p < 0.05) and elevated OC (>75th percentile-16.6 ng/mL) (6.7 (1.9–23.8) p < 0.01) were found to be significant FRS predictors, while subjects with elevated OC and/or BALP (>75th percentile-9.8 μg/L) showed a higher CV risk as estimated by PROCAM (3.6 (1.2–10.7) p < 0.05). CTx and P1NP did not significantly correlate with CV risk factors or scores. Conclusion: As we go further into bone and CV physiology, it is evident that a close relationship exists between these diseases. Further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms by which bone turnover markers are related to metabolic risk and could modulate CV risk. This knowledge may help to develop possible multiple-purpose strategies for both CV disease and OP prevention and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular risk; vitamin D; bone turnover biomarkers; FRAMINGHAM score; PROCAM score cardiovascular risk; vitamin D; bone turnover biomarkers; FRAMINGHAM score; PROCAM score

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vassalle, C.; Sabatino, L.; Cecco, P.D.; Maltinti, M.; Ndreu, R.; Maffei, S.; Pingitore, A. Relationship between Bone Health Biomarkers and Cardiovascular Risk in a General Adult Population. Diseases 2017, 5, 24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Diseases EISSN 2079-9721 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top