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A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis
Circuits and Systems Research Group, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2010; in revised form: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 22 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Abstract: Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis.
Keywords: analogue filter; doubly terminated LC ladder; gyrator substitution; synthesis procedure; symbolic maths
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Casson, A.J.; Rodriguez-Villegas, E. A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2011, 1, 20-44.
Casson AJ, Rodriguez-Villegas E. A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis. Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. 2011; 1(1):20-44.
Casson, Alexander J.; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther. 2011. "A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis." J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 1, no. 1: 20-44.