J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2011, 1(1), 1-19; doi:10.3390/jlpea1010001
Review

Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS

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Received: 23 November 2010; in revised form: 18 January 2011 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ultra-low-voltage operation improves energy efficiency of logic circuits by a factor of 10×, at the expense of speed, which is acceptable for applications with low-to-medium performance requirements such as RFID, biomedical devices and wireless sensors. However, in 65/45 nm CMOS, variability and short-channel effects significantly harm robustness and timing closure of ultra-low-voltage circuits by reducing noise margins and jeopardizing gate delays. The consequent guardband on the supply voltage to meet a reasonable manufacturing yield potentially ruins energy efficiency. Moreover, high leakage currents in these technologies degrade energy efficiency in case of long stand-by periods. In this paper, we review recently published techniques to design robust and energy-efficient ultra-low-voltage circuits in 65/45 nm CMOS under relaxed yet strict timing constraints.
Keywords: digital CMOS circuits; ultra-low power; subthreshold logic; variability; leakage currents; yield
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bol, D. Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2011, 1, 1-19.

AMA Style

Bol D. Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS. Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. 2011; 1(1):1-19.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bol, David. 2011. "Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS." J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 1, no. 1: 1-19.

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