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Antibiotics 2013, 2(1), 163-181; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2010163
Review

Resistance-Nodulation-Division Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Role in Virulence

 and *
Received: 28 December 2012; in revised form: 5 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
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Abstract: Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) efflux pumps are one of the most important determinants of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria. With an ever increasing number of Gram-negative clinical isolates exhibiting MDR phenotypes as a result of the activity of RND pumps, it is clear that the design of novel effective clinical strategies against such pathogens must be grounded in a better understanding of these pumps, including their physiological roles. To this end, recent evidence suggests that RND pumps play an important role in the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens. In this review, we discuss the important role RND efflux pumps play in different facets of virulence including colonization, evasion of host defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. These studies provide key insights that may ultimately be applied towards strategies used in the design of effective therapeutics against MDR Gram negative bacterial pathogens.
Keywords: ultidrug efflux systems; Gram-negative bacteria; host-colonization; oxidative stress; biofilm ultidrug efflux systems; Gram-negative bacteria; host-colonization; oxidative stress; biofilm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernando, D.M.; Kumar, A. Resistance-Nodulation-Division Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Role in Virulence. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 163-181.

AMA Style

Fernando DM, Kumar A. Resistance-Nodulation-Division Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Role in Virulence. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(1):163-181.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernando, Dinesh M.; Kumar, Ayush. 2013. "Resistance-Nodulation-Division Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Role in Virulence." Antibiotics 2, no. 1: 163-181.

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