Antibiotics 2013, 2(1), 115-162; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2010115
Article

An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

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Received: 23 November 2012; in revised form: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Environmental Footprint of Antibiotics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: An environmental risk assessment (ERA) for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP), comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC) and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters.
Keywords: trimethoprim; environmental exposure; environmental effects; environmental risk assessment; surface waters; Europe
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MDPI and ACS Style

Straub, J.O. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 115-162.

AMA Style

Straub JO. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(1):115-162.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Straub, Jürg O. 2013. "An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters." Antibiotics 2, no. 1: 115-162.

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