Next Article in Journal
Tracking Change: A Look at the Ecological Footprint of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Resistance-Nodulation-Division Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Role in Virulence
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 182-190; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020182

Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

1,*  and 2
1 School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK 2 Travel Medicine of the CMDT, Institute of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 100 Rua Junqueira, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [444 KB, uploaded 27 March 2013]   |   Browse Figures


The use of light-activated bactericidal agents—photobactericides—is suggested in local infection in order to conserve conventional antibacterials for more systemic disease. Local administration of a photobactericide such as methylene blue coupled with locally-targeted red light illumination ensures the production of non-specific reactive oxygen species and thus a rapid and localised antibacterial response, regardless of the conventional resistance status. To this end, the response of photobactericides to conventional resistance mechanisms, and their potential use in infection, is discussed.
Keywords: photobactericide; conventional resistance mechanisms; methylene blue photobactericide; conventional resistance mechanisms; methylene blue
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Wainwright, M.; Amaral, L. Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 182-190.

View more citation formats

Article Metrics


Cited By

[Return to top]
Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert