Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 182-190; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2020182

Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

1 School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK 2 Travel Medicine of the CMDT, Institute of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 100 Rua Junqueira, 1349-008 Lisbon, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2013; in revised form: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 27 March 2013
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Abstract: The use of light-activated bactericidal agents—photobactericides—is suggested in local infection in order to conserve conventional antibacterials for more systemic disease. Local administration of a photobactericide such as methylene blue coupled with locally-targeted red light illumination ensures the production of non-specific reactive oxygen species and thus a rapid and localised antibacterial response, regardless of the conventional resistance status. To this end, the response of photobactericides to conventional resistance mechanisms, and their potential use in infection, is discussed.
Keywords: photobactericide; conventional resistance mechanisms; methylene blue

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wainwright, M.; Amaral, L. Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 182-190.

AMA Style

Wainwright M, Amaral L. Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(2):182-190.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wainwright, Mark; Amaral, Leonard. 2013. "Photobactericides—A Local Option against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria." Antibiotics 2, no. 2: 182-190.

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