Next Article in Journal
Fe Core–Carbon Shell Nanoparticles as Advanced MRI Contrast Enhancer
Previous Article in Journal
Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants—A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Suitability of EGCG as a Means of Stabilizing a Porcine Osteochondral Xenograft
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8040045

In Vitro Findings of Titanium Functionalized with Estradiol via Polydopamine Adlayer

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, Level 11, 1E Kent Ridge Road, 119228 Singapore, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Implants and Devices)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5852 KB, uploaded 28 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

To improve orthopedic implant fixation and reduce post-operative complications, osteogenic molecules are delivered locally by immobilizing them on the surface of implants, which will modulate the biology of cell attachment and differentiation on the implant surface. Estradiol, a natural steroid hormone, maintains bone metabolism by decreasing bone resorption. It either directly or indirectly affects osteoclasts. In this work, estradiol was immobilized on a titanium surface by polydopamine adlayer. Immobilization of estradiol was confirmed by X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Estradiol-modified substrates enhanced alkaline phosphatases activity (ALP) and calcium deposition of osteoblasts. However, these substrates did not decrease tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and actin ring formation of the osteoclast. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of estradiol-modified substrates showed the formation of estradiol crystals, which decreased the potency of immobilized estradiol. Despite having a successful immobilization of estradiol via the polydopamine technique, the bioavailability and potency of coated estradiol is reduced due to crystallization, suggesting that this is not a suitable system for localized estradiol delivery as tested in vitro here. Consequently, other suitable platforms have to be explored for immobilizing estradiol that will prevent crystal formation while preserving the biological activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoporosis; implants; estradiol; polydopamine; osteoblasts and osteoclasts osteoporosis; implants; estradiol; polydopamine; osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Steffi, C.; Shi, Z.; Kong, C.H.; Wang, W. In Vitro Findings of Titanium Functionalized with Estradiol via Polydopamine Adlayer. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 45.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top