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J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 43; doi:10.3390/jfb8040043

Suitability of EGCG as a Means of Stabilizing a Porcine Osteochondral Xenograft

Agricultural & Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
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Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Implants and Devices)
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Abstract

As a non-crosslinked osteochondral xenograft would be mechanically inferior to native cartilage and vulnerable to premature degradation, we seek a safe and effective method of xenograft stabilization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to stabilize a decellularized porcine osteochondral xenograft through collagen crosslinking. Our objectives were to assess the effects of EGCG on the degree of crosslinking, mechanical properties, collagenase resistance, cytotoxicity, and in vitro biocompatibility. EGCG is a green tea polyphenol that acts as a collagen crosslinker. Porcine osteochondral plugs were decellularized and then crosslinked by soaking in EGCG. The degree of crosslinking, cartilage compressive stiffness, cartilage-bone interface strength, coefficient of friction, and residual mass after collagenase exposure all increased with an increasing EGCG concentration. With the exception of the coefficient of friction, EGCG treatment could restore mechanical properties to levels equal to, or exceeding those, of native cartilage. EGCG treatment profoundly increased the enzymatic resistance, and 1% EGCG provided protection equivalent to 1% glutaraldehyde. EGCG up to 0.5 mM was essentially not cytotoxic to chondrocytes embedded in alginate, and autologous chondrocytes attached to decellularized, EGCG-fixed cartilage were all viable five days after seeding. Results demonstrate that EGCG has many beneficial effects on a decellularized osteochondral xenograft, and may be suitable for use in stabilizing such a graft prior to implantation for the repair of a defect. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteochondral xenograft; epigallocatechin gallate; crosslinking osteochondral xenograft; epigallocatechin gallate; crosslinking
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elder, S.; Clune, J.; Walker, J.; Gloth, P. Suitability of EGCG as a Means of Stabilizing a Porcine Osteochondral Xenograft. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 43.

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J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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