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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Suitability of EGCG as a Means of Stabilizing a Porcine Osteochondral Xenograft
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 43; doi:10.3390/jfb8040043
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
As a non-crosslinked osteochondral xenograft would be mechanically inferior to native cartilage and vulnerable to premature degradation, we seek a safe and effective method of xenograft stabilization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to stabilize
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As a non-crosslinked osteochondral xenograft would be mechanically inferior to native cartilage and vulnerable to premature degradation, we seek a safe and effective method of xenograft stabilization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to stabilize a decellularized porcine osteochondral xenograft through collagen crosslinking. Our objectives were to assess the effects of EGCG on the degree of crosslinking, mechanical properties, collagenase resistance, cytotoxicity, and in vitro biocompatibility. EGCG is a green tea polyphenol that acts as a collagen crosslinker. Porcine osteochondral plugs were decellularized and then crosslinked by soaking in EGCG. The degree of crosslinking, cartilage compressive stiffness, cartilage-bone interface strength, coefficient of friction, and residual mass after collagenase exposure all increased with an increasing EGCG concentration. With the exception of the coefficient of friction, EGCG treatment could restore mechanical properties to levels equal to, or exceeding those, of native cartilage. EGCG treatment profoundly increased the enzymatic resistance, and 1% EGCG provided protection equivalent to 1% glutaraldehyde. EGCG up to 0.5 mM was essentially not cytotoxic to chondrocytes embedded in alginate, and autologous chondrocytes attached to decellularized, EGCG-fixed cartilage were all viable five days after seeding. Results demonstrate that EGCG has many beneficial effects on a decellularized osteochondral xenograft, and may be suitable for use in stabilizing such a graft prior to implantation for the repair of a defect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Implants and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Findings of Titanium Functionalized with Estradiol via Polydopamine Adlayer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 45; doi:10.3390/jfb8040045
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
To improve orthopedic implant fixation and reduce post-operative complications, osteogenic molecules are delivered locally by immobilizing them on the surface of implants, which will modulate the biology of cell attachment and differentiation on the implant surface. Estradiol, a natural steroid hormone, maintains bone
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To improve orthopedic implant fixation and reduce post-operative complications, osteogenic molecules are delivered locally by immobilizing them on the surface of implants, which will modulate the biology of cell attachment and differentiation on the implant surface. Estradiol, a natural steroid hormone, maintains bone metabolism by decreasing bone resorption. It either directly or indirectly affects osteoclasts. In this work, estradiol was immobilized on a titanium surface by polydopamine adlayer. Immobilization of estradiol was confirmed by X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Estradiol-modified substrates enhanced alkaline phosphatases activity (ALP) and calcium deposition of osteoblasts. However, these substrates did not decrease tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and actin ring formation of the osteoclast. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of estradiol-modified substrates showed the formation of estradiol crystals, which decreased the potency of immobilized estradiol. Despite having a successful immobilization of estradiol via the polydopamine technique, the bioavailability and potency of coated estradiol is reduced due to crystallization, suggesting that this is not a suitable system for localized estradiol delivery as tested in vitro here. Consequently, other suitable platforms have to be explored for immobilizing estradiol that will prevent crystal formation while preserving the biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Implants and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Fe Core–Carbon Shell Nanoparticles as Advanced MRI Contrast Enhancer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 46; doi:10.3390/jfb8040046
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to fabricate a hybrid composite of iron (Fe) core–carbon (C) shell nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These new classes of magnetic core–shell nanoparticles are synthesized using a one-step top–down
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The aim of this study is to fabricate a hybrid composite of iron (Fe) core–carbon (C) shell nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These new classes of magnetic core–shell nanoparticles are synthesized using a one-step top–down approach through the electric plasma discharge generated in the cavitation field in organic solvents by an ultrasonic horn. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed the core–shell nanoparticles with 10–85 nm in diameter with excellent dispersibility in water without any agglomeration. TEM showed the structural confirmation of Fe nanoparticles with body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. Magnetic multi-functional hybrid composites of Fe core–C shell nanoparticles were then evaluated as negative MRI contrast agents, displaying remarkably high transverse relaxivity (r2) of 70 mM−1·S−1 at 7 T. This simple one-step synthesis procedure is highly versatile and produces desired nanoparticles with high efficacy as MRI contrast agents and potential utility in other biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticle Design for Medical Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 47; doi:10.3390/jfb8040047
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues.
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Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents—(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) (EDC), glyceraldehyde (GC), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE)—to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA) and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays) morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of PBS Treatment and PEI Coating Effects on Surface Morphology and Cellular Response of 3D-Printed Alginate Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 48; doi:10.3390/jfb8040048
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on the surface morphology and cellular response of the printed scaffolds. In our study, sterile alginate was prepared by means of the freeze-drying method and then, used to prepare the hydrogel for 3D printing into calcium chloride, forming 3D scaffolds. Scaffolds were treated with PBS for a time period of two days and seven days, respectively, and PEI coating; then they were seeded with Schwann cells (RSC96) for the examination of cellular response (proliferation and differentiation). In addition, swelling and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the treated scaffolds was evaluated, while their surface morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed significant changes in scaffold surface morphology due to degradation caused by the PBS treatment over time. Our cell proliferation assessment over seven days showed that a two-day PBS treatment could be more effective than seven-day PBS treatment for improving cell attachment and elongation. While PEI coating of alginate scaffolds seemed to contribute to cell growth, Schwann cells stayed round on the surface of alginate over the period of cell culture. In conclusion, PBS-treatment may offer the potential to induce surface physical cues due to degradation of alginate, which could improve cell attachment post cell-seeding of 3D-printed alginate scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Effect of RANKL/OPG Balance on Reducing Implant Complications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 42; doi:10.3390/jfb8040042
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing
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Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing and bone repair, especially with the presence of an implant, is complex because it involves a multifaceted immune response alongside the intricate process of bone formation and remodelling. Bone loss is a serious clinical problem that is frequently accompanied by chronic inflammation, illustrating that there is a convoluted relationship between inflammation and bone erosion. The effects of pro-inflammatory factors play a significant role in initiating and maintaining osteoclastogenesis that results in bone resorption by osteoclasts. This is because there is a disruption of the relative ratio between Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB-Ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is central to modulating bone repair and remodelling. This review aims to provide a background to the bone remodelling process, the bone repair cascade post-implantation, and the associated complications. Furthermore, current clinical solutions that can influence bone formation via either internal or extrinsic mechanisms will be described. These efficacious treatments for osteolysis via targeting the RANKL/OPG ratio may be crucial to reducing the incidence of related implant failures in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Implants and Devices)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants—A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 44; doi:10.3390/jfb8040044
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used
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Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used in either one of the aforesaid forms. Some of these materials are designed to degrade or to be resorbed inside the body rather than removing the implant after its function is served. Many properties such as mechanical properties, non-toxicity, surface modification, degradation rate, biocompatibility, and corrosion rate and scaffold design are taken into consideration. The current review focuses on state-of-the-art biodegradable bioceramics, polymers, metal alloys and a few implants that employ bioresorbable/biodegradable materials. The essential functions, properties and their critical factors are discussed in detail, in addition to their challenges to be overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Open AccessReview Reconstruction of Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects Using Tissue-Engineering Strategies with Injectable and Non-Injectable Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 49; doi:10.3390/jfb8040049 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these
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Engineering craniofacial bone tissues is challenging due to their complex structures. Current standard autografts and allografts have many drawbacks for craniofacial bone tissue reconstruction; including donor site morbidity and the ability to reinstate the aesthetic characteristics of the host tissue. To overcome these problems; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies have been developed as a potential way to reconstruct damaged bone tissue. Different types of new biomaterials; including natural polymers; synthetic polymers and bioceramics; have emerged to treat these damaged craniofacial bone tissues in the form of injectable and non-injectable scaffolds; which are examined in this review. Injectable scaffolds can be considered a better approach to craniofacial tissue engineering as they can be inserted with minimally invasive surgery; thus protecting the aesthetic characteristics. In this review; we also focus on recent research innovations with different types of stem-cell sources harvested from oral tissue and growth factors used to develop craniofacial bone tissue-engineering strategies. Full article
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