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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-58

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Use of an Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device for Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbit Eyes
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 6-13; doi:10.3390/jfb4010006
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
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Abstract
To investigate the temporary tamponade effects of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) for experimental retinal tears, we performed vitrectomy in four rabbit eyes and created a posterior vitreous detachment and artificial retinal tear to produce retinal detachment. The retina was flattened with [...] Read more.
To investigate the temporary tamponade effects of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) for experimental retinal tears, we performed vitrectomy in four rabbit eyes and created a posterior vitreous detachment and artificial retinal tear to produce retinal detachment. The retina was flattened with liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC), the area peripheral to the tear was photocoagulated, an OVD was applied to the retinal tear surface below the PFC and the PFC was removed by aspiration. In the control group, PFC was removed without application of OVD. At one, three and seven days postoperatively, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed to examine the sealing process of the retinal tear. In OVD-treated eyes, the OVD remained on the retinal surface, and the retinal tear was patched for ≥ 3 days postoperatively. By seven days postoperatively, the OVD on the retinal surface had disappeared, and the retina was reattached. In control eyes, the edge of the retinal tear was rolled, and retinal detachment persisted. In OVD-treated eyes, the border of the retinal tear was indistinct, and the defect area was significantly decreased. These results show that application of an OVD effectively seals retinal tears and eliminates retinal detachments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and in Vitro Biocompatibility of a Novel Ocular Drug Delivery Device
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 14-26; doi:10.3390/jfb4010014
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
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Abstract
The capsule drug ring (CDR) is a reservoir and delivery agent, which is designed to be placed within the capsular bag during cataract surgery. Prototypes were manufactured by hot melt extrusion of Bionate II®, a polycarbonate urethane. The devices have [...] Read more.
The capsule drug ring (CDR) is a reservoir and delivery agent, which is designed to be placed within the capsular bag during cataract surgery. Prototypes were manufactured by hot melt extrusion of Bionate II®, a polycarbonate urethane. The devices have been optimized using Avastin® as the drug of interest. In vitro biocompatibility was assessed with human lens epithelial cell (B-3), mouse macrophage (J774A.1) and mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines. Cell migration and proliferation were assessed after in vitro culture. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., MIP-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF and TGF-β1) were quantified using cytometric bead array (CBA). Preliminary in vivo biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics testing has been performed in rabbits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)
Open AccessCommunication Heat Generation and Transfer Behaviors of Ti-Coated Carbon Steel Rod Adaptable for Ablation Therapy of Oral Cancer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 27-37; doi:10.3390/jfb4010027
Received: 25 December 2012 / Revised: 23 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 [...] Read more.
For the purpose of developing a novel ablation therapy for oral cancer, the heat generation and transfer properties of a Ti-coated carbon steel rod with 20-mm length and 1.8-mm outer diameter were investigated by means of a high-frequency induction technique at 300 kHz. The heat generation measurement performed using water (15 mL) revealed that the difference of the inclination angles (θ = 0°, 45° and 90°) relative to the magnetic flux direction only slightly affects the heating behavior, exhibiting the overlapped temperature curves during an induction time of 1200 s. These results suggest that the effect of the shape magnetic anisotropy is almost eliminated, being convenient for the precise control of the ablation temperature in clinical use. In the experiments utilizing a tissue-mimicking phantom, the heat transfer concentrically occurred in the lateral direction for both the planar surface and a 10-mm deep cross-section. However, the former exhibited a considerably lower increase in temperature (ΔT), probably due to the effect of heat dissipation to the ambient air. No significant heat transfer was found to occur to the lower side of the inserted Ti-coated carbon steel rod, which is situated in the longitudinal direction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cultivation of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells on Topographical Substrates to Mimic the Human Corneal Endothelium
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 38-58; doi:10.3390/jfb4010038
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human corneal endothelial cells have a limited ability to replicate in vivo and in vitro. Allograft transplantation becomes necessary when an accident or trauma results in excessive cell loss. The reconstruction of the cornea endothelium using autologous cell sources is a [...] Read more.
Human corneal endothelial cells have a limited ability to replicate in vivo and in vitro. Allograft transplantation becomes necessary when an accident or trauma results in excessive cell loss. The reconstruction of the cornea endothelium using autologous cell sources is a promising alternative option for therapeutic or in vitro drug testing applications. The native corneal endothelium rests on the Descemet’s membrane, which has nanotopographies of fibers and pores. The use of synthetic topographies mimics the native environment, and it is hypothesized that this can direct the behavior and growth of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) to resemble the corneal endothelium. In this study, HMVECs are cultivated on substrates with micron and nano-scaled pillar and well topographies. Closely packed HMVEC monolayers with polygonal cells and well-developed tight junctions were formed on the topographical substrates. Sodium/potassium (Na+/K+) adenine triphosphatase (ATPase) expression was enhanced on the microwells substrate, which also promotes microvilli formation, while more hexagonal-like cells are found on the micropillars samples. The data obtained suggests that the use of optimized surface patterning, in particular, the microtopographies, can induce HMVECs to adopt a more corneal endothelium-like morphology with similar barrier and pump functions. The mechanism involved in cell contact guidance by the specific topographical features will be of interest for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ophthalmic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessNew Book Received Non-Metallic Biomaterials for Tooth Repair and Replacement. By Pekka Vallittu, Woodhead Publishing, 2013; 406 pages. Price £145.00/US$245.00/€175.00 ISBN 978-0-85709-244-1
J. Funct. Biomater. 2013, 4(1), 1-5; doi:10.3390/jfb4010001
Received: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
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Abstract
1. Discusses the properties of enamel and dentin and their role in adhesive dental restoration;2. Chapters also examine the wear properties of dental ceramics, glasses and bioactive glass ceramics for tooth repair and replacement;3. Dental composites and antibacterial restorative materials are also [...] Read more.
1. Discusses the properties of enamel and dentin and their role in adhesive dental restoration;2. Chapters also examine the wear properties of dental ceramics, glasses and bioactive glass ceramics for tooth repair and replacement;3. Dental composites and antibacterial restorative materials are also considered;4. Provides a concise overview of non-metallic biomaterials for dental clinicians, materials scientists and academic researchers alike.As the demand for healthy, attractive teeth increases, the methods and materials employed in restorative dentistry have become progressively more advanced. Non-metallic biomaterials for tooth repair and replacement focuses on the use of biomaterials for a range of applications in tooth repair and, in particular, dental restoration. Full article

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