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Information, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2014), Pages 526-660

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Research

Open AccessArticle VBSM: VCC-Based Black Box Service Model with Enhanced Data Integrity
Information 2014, 5(4), 526-534; doi:10.3390/info5040526
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
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Abstract
Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have
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Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have become mandatory because black box images and voice data have served as forensic evidence in courts. However, the data from black boxes can be forged or modified by man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks and message hijacking. In this paper, we propose a vehicle cloud computing-based black box service model that can provide integrity for black box data through digital signatures in vehicle cloud computing (VCC) environments. Our proposed model protects against MITM attacks and message hijacking using only a hash value and digital signature. Moreover, a mirroring technique (RAID 1) provides backup and recovery to protect the data from a traffic accident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Systems and Services for IT Convergence)
Open AccessArticle SMR-Based Adaptive Mobility Management Scheme in Hierarchical SIP Networks
Information 2014, 5(4), 535-547; doi:10.3390/info5040535
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
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Abstract
In hierarchical SIP networks, paging is performed to reduce location update signaling cost for mobility management. However, the cost efficiency largely depends on each mobile node’s session-to-mobility-ratio (SMR), which is defined as a ratio of the session arrival rate to the movement rate.
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In hierarchical SIP networks, paging is performed to reduce location update signaling cost for mobility management. However, the cost efficiency largely depends on each mobile node’s session-to-mobility-ratio (SMR), which is defined as a ratio of the session arrival rate to the movement rate. In this paper, we propose the adaptive mobility management scheme that can determine the policy regarding to each mobile node’s SMR. Each mobile node determines whether the paging is applied or not after comparing its SMR with the threshold. In other words, the paging is applied to a mobile node when a mobile node’s SMR is less than the threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme provides a way to minimize signaling costs according to each mobile node’s SMR. We find out the optimal threshold through performance analysis, and show that the proposed scheme can reduce signaling cost than the existing SIP and paging schemes in hierarchical SIP networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Systems and Services for IT Convergence)
Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of an Indoor Positioning Scheme Using Infrared Motion Sensors
Information 2014, 5(4), 548-557; doi:10.3390/info5040548
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 27 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) for Smart Environments (SE) is a new scenario that collects useful information and provides convenient services to humans via sensing and wireless communications. Infra-Red (IR) motion sensors have recently been widely used for indoor lighting because they allow the
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Internet of Things (IoT) for Smart Environments (SE) is a new scenario that collects useful information and provides convenient services to humans via sensing and wireless communications. Infra-Red (IR) motion sensors have recently been widely used for indoor lighting because they allow the system to detect whether a human is inside or outside the sensors’ range. In this paper, the performance of a position estimation scheme based on IR motion sensor is evaluated in an indoor SE. The experimental results show that we can track the dynamic position of a pedestrian in straight moving model as well as two dimensional models. Experimental results also show that higher performance in accuracy and dynamic tracking in real indoor environment can be achieved without other devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on the Internet of Things in a Smart Environment)
Open AccessArticle Critical Success Factors in Capturing Knowledge for Retention in IT-Supported Repositories
Information 2014, 5(4), 558-569; doi:10.3390/info5040558
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 28 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (979 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the authors demonstrate the suitability of IT-supported knowledge repositories for knowledge retention. Successful knowledge retention is dependent on what is stored in a repository and, hence, possible to share. Accordingly, the ability to capture the right (relevant) knowledge is a
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In this paper, the authors demonstrate the suitability of IT-supported knowledge repositories for knowledge retention. Successful knowledge retention is dependent on what is stored in a repository and, hence, possible to share. Accordingly, the ability to capture the right (relevant) knowledge is a key aspect. Therefore, to increase the quality in an IT-supported knowledge repository, the identification activity, which starts the capture process, must be successfully performed. While critical success factors (CSFs) for knowledge retention and knowledge management are frequently discussed in the literature, there is a knowledge gap concerning CSFs for this specific knowledge capture activity. From a knowledge retention perspective, this paper proposes a model that characterizes CSFs for the identification activity and highlights the CSFs’ contribution to knowledge retention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Hoabinh Reservoir’s Incoming Flow: An Application of Neural Networks with the Cuckoo Search Algorithm
Information 2014, 5(4), 570-586; doi:10.3390/info5040570
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 15 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accuracy of reservoir flow forecasting has the most significant influence on the assurance of stability and annual operations of hydro-constructions. For instance, accurate forecasting on the ebb and flow of Vietnam’s Hoabinh Reservoir can aid in the preparation and prevention of lowland
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The accuracy of reservoir flow forecasting has the most significant influence on the assurance of stability and annual operations of hydro-constructions. For instance, accurate forecasting on the ebb and flow of Vietnam’s Hoabinh Reservoir can aid in the preparation and prevention of lowland flooding and drought, as well as regulating electric energy. This raises the need to propose a model that accurately forecasts the incoming flow of the Hoabinh Reservoir. In this study, a solution to this problem based on neural network with the Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm is presented. In particular, we used hydrographic data and predicted total incoming flows of the Hoabinh Reservoir over a period of 10 days. The Cuckoo Search algorithm was utilized to train the feedforward neural network (FNN) for prediction. The algorithm optimized the weights between layers and biases of the neuron network. Different forecasting models for the three scenarios were developed. The constructed models have shown high forecasting performance based on the performance indices calculated. These results were also compared with those obtained from the neural networks trained by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and back-propagation (BP), indicating that the proposed approach performed more effectively. Based on the experimental results, the scenario using the rainfall and the flow as input yielded the highest forecasting accuracy when compared with other scenarios. The performance criteria RMSE, MAPE, and R obtained by the CS-FNN in this scenario were calculated as 48.7161, 0.067268 and 0.8965, respectively. These results were highly correlated to actual values. It is expected that this work may be useful for hydrographic forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Applications)
Open AccessArticle A New Intuitionistic Fuzzy Entropy and Application in Multi-Attribute Decision Making
Information 2014, 5(4), 587-601; doi:10.3390/info5040587
Received: 7 August 2014 / Revised: 1 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, firstly, a new intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) entropy has been put forward, which considered both the uncertainty and the hesitancy degree of IF sets. Through comparing with other entropy measures, the advantage of the new entropy measure is obvious. Secondly, based
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In this paper, firstly, a new intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) entropy has been put forward, which considered both the uncertainty and the hesitancy degree of IF sets. Through comparing with other entropy measures, the advantage of the new entropy measure is obvious. Secondly, based on the new entropy measure, a new decision making method of a multi-attribute decision making problem was subsequently put forward, in which attribute values are expressed with IF values. In the cases of attribute weights, completely unknown and attribute weights are partially known. Two methods were constructed to determine them. One method is an extension of the ordinary entropy weight method, and the other method is a construction the optimal model according to the minimum entropy principle. Finally, two practical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Efficiency Improvement of Vehicular Antenna Systems for Ubiquitous Intelligent Systems
Information 2014, 5(4), 602-611; doi:10.3390/info5040602
Received: 26 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
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Abstract
This paper describes the design of a high-efficiency vehicular roof-mounted antenna for wireless access for vehicular environment (WAVE) communication systems used for ubiquitous intelligent systems. The main objective of the ubiquitous intelligent system’s automotive IT technology is to enhance the connectivity among vehicles
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This paper describes the design of a high-efficiency vehicular roof-mounted antenna for wireless access for vehicular environment (WAVE) communication systems used for ubiquitous intelligent systems. The main objective of the ubiquitous intelligent system’s automotive IT technology is to enhance the connectivity among vehicles to ensure seamless communication and to reduce the initial access time using high-performance antenna systems. The efficiency of WAVE communication systems used for ubiquitous intelligent systems depends on the antenna efficiency. The proposed vehicular antenna for WAVE communication systems shows an improvement of approximately 4.77 dB in the return loss, as compared with a conventional antenna system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ubiquitous Computing and Information Science)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Characteristics of Power Consumption for Context-Aware Mobile Applications
Information 2014, 5(4), 612-621; doi:10.3390/info5040612
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
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Abstract
In recent years, a large portion of smartphone applications (Apps) has targeted context-aware services. They aim to perceive users’ real-time context like his/her location, actions, or even emotion, and to provide various customized services based on the inferred context. However, context-awareness in mobile
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In recent years, a large portion of smartphone applications (Apps) has targeted context-aware services. They aim to perceive users’ real-time context like his/her location, actions, or even emotion, and to provide various customized services based on the inferred context. However, context-awareness in mobile environments has some challenging issues due to limitations of devices themselves. Limited power is regarded as the most critical problem in context-awareness on smartphones. Many studies have tried to develop low-power methods, but most of them have focused on the power consumption of H/W modules of smartphones such as CPU and LCD. Only a few research papers have recently started to present some S/W-based approaches to improve the power consumption. That is, previous works did not consider energy consumed by context-awareness of Apps. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the power consumption of context-aware Apps. We analyze the characteristics of context-aware Apps in a perspective of the power consumption, and then define two main factors which significantly influence the power consumption: a sort of context that context-aware Apps require for their services and a type of ways that a user uses them. The experimental result shows the reasonability and the possibility to develop low-power methods based on our analysis. That is, our analysis presented in this paper will be a foundation for energy-efficient context-aware services in mobile environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on the Internet of Things in a Smart Environment)
Open AccessArticle Protection Method for Data Communication between ADS-B Sensor and Next-Generation Air Traffic Control Systems
Information 2014, 5(4), 622-633; doi:10.3390/info5040622
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 18 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems utilize digital technologies, satellite systems, and various levels of automation to facilitate seamless global air traffic management. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), the core component of CNS/ATM, broadcasts important monitoring information, such as the location, altitude, and
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Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems utilize digital technologies, satellite systems, and various levels of automation to facilitate seamless global air traffic management. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), the core component of CNS/ATM, broadcasts important monitoring information, such as the location, altitude, and direction of aircraft, to the ground. However, ADS-B data are transmitted in an unencrypted (or unprotected) communication channel between ADS-B sensors and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Consequently, these data are vulnerable to security threats, such as spoofing, eavesdropping, and data modification. In this paper, we propose a method that protects the ADS-B data transmitted between ADS-B sensors and ATC using Simple Public Key Infrastructure (SPKI) certificates and symmetric cryptography. The SPKI certificates are used to grant transmission authorization to the ADS-B sensors, while symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt/decrypt the ADS-B data transmitted between the ADS-B sensors and ATC. The proposed security framework comprises an ADS-B sensor authentication module, an encrypted data processing module, and an ADS-B sensor information management module. We believe that application of the proposed security framework to CNS/ATM will enable it to effectively obviate security threats, such as ground station flood denial, ground station target ghost injection, and ADS-B data modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Systems and Services for IT Convergence)
Open AccessArticle Deep Web Search Interface Identification: A Semi-Supervised Ensemble Approach
Information 2014, 5(4), 634-651; doi:10.3390/info5040634
Received: 30 October 2014 / Revised: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 28 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
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Abstract
To surface the Deep Web, one crucial task is to predict whether a given web page has a search interface (searchable HyperText Markup Language (HTML) form) or not. Previous studies have focused on supervised classification with labeled examples. However, labeled data are scarce,
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To surface the Deep Web, one crucial task is to predict whether a given web page has a search interface (searchable HyperText Markup Language (HTML) form) or not. Previous studies have focused on supervised classification with labeled examples. However, labeled data are scarce, hard to get and requires tediousmanual work, while unlabeled HTML forms are abundant and easy to obtain. In this research, we consider the plausibility of using both labeled and unlabeled data to train better models to identify search interfaces more effectively. We present a semi-supervised co-training ensemble learning approach using both neural networks and decision trees to deal with the search interface identification problem. We show that the proposed model outperforms previous methods using only labeled data. We also show that adding unlabeled data improves the effectiveness of the proposed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communications Technology)
Open AccessArticle Design of Programmable LED Controller with a Variable Current Source for 3D Image Display
Information 2014, 5(4), 652-660; doi:10.3390/info5040652
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
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Abstract
Conventional fluorescent light sources, as well as incandescent light sources are gradually being replaced by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for reducing power consumption in the image display area for multimedia application. An LED light source requires a controller with a low-power operation. In
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Conventional fluorescent light sources, as well as incandescent light sources are gradually being replaced by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for reducing power consumption in the image display area for multimedia application. An LED light source requires a controller with a low-power operation. In this paper, a low-power technique using adiabatic operation is applied for the implementation of LED controller with a stable constant-current, a low-power and low-heat function. From the simulation result, the power consumption of the proposed LED controller using adiabatic operation was reduced to about 87% in comparison with conventional operation with a constant VDD. The proposed circuit is expected to be an alternative LED controller which is sensitive to external conditions such as heat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Systems and Services for IT Convergence)
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