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J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae the ruins of an ancient Roman city can be admired. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variability of Wind Sea and Swell Waves Climate along the Canary Current: The Local Wind Effect
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010028
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
A climatology of wind sea and swell waves along the Canary eastern boundary current area, from west Iberia to Mauritania, is presented. The study is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis ERA-Interim. The wind regime along the Canary
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A climatology of wind sea and swell waves along the Canary eastern boundary current area, from west Iberia to Mauritania, is presented. The study is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis ERA-Interim. The wind regime along the Canary Current, along west Iberia and north-west Africa, varies significantly from winter to summer. High summer wind speeds generate high wind sea waves, particularly along the coasts of Morocco and Western Sahara. Lower winter wind speeds, along with stronger extratropical storms crossing the North Atlantic sub-basin up north lead to a predominance of swell waves in the area during from December to February. In summer, the coast parallel wind interacts with the coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed and the locally generated waves. The spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of the Open-Water Performance of Ducted Propellers with a Panel Method
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010027
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
In the present work, a comparison between the results obtained by a panel code with a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code is made to obtain a better insight on the viscous effects of the ducted propeller and on the limitations of the inviscid flow
[...] Read more.
In the present work, a comparison between the results obtained by a panel code with a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code is made to obtain a better insight on the viscous effects of the ducted propeller and on the limitations of the inviscid flow model, especially near bollard pull conditions or low advance ratios, which are important in the design stage. The analysis is carried out for propeller Ka4-70 operating inside duct 19A. From the comparison, several modelling aspects are studied for improvement of the inviscid (potential) flow solution. Finally, the experimental open-water data is compared with the panel method and RANS solutions. A strong influence of the blade wake pitch, especially near the blade tip, on the ducted propeller force predictions is seen. A reduction of the pitch of the gap strip is proposed for improvement of the performance prediction at low advance ratios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Propulsors)
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Open AccessArticle Small-Scale Renewable Energy Converters for Battery Charging
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010026
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC) for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University, small-scale electricity generation in the buoy is needed to power a tidal compensating system designed to increase the performance of the WEC in areas with high tides. The two considered and modeled concepts are an oscillating water column (OWC) and a heaving point absorber. The results indicate that the OWC is too small for the task and does not produce enough energy. On the other hand, the results show that a hybrid system composed of a small heaving point absorber combined with a solar energy system would be able to provide a requested minimum power of around 37.7 W on average year around. The WEC and solar panel complement each other, as the WEC produces enough energy by itself during wintertime (but not in the summer), while the solar panel produces enough energy in the summer (but not in the winter). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocean Wave Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Effluent Discharge Options on Global OTEC Resources
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010025
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
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Abstract
A simple algorithm previously used to evaluate steady-state global Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) resources is extended to probe the effect of various effluent discharge methodologies. It is found that separate evaporator and condenser discharges potentially increase OTEC net power limits by about
[...] Read more.
A simple algorithm previously used to evaluate steady-state global Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) resources is extended to probe the effect of various effluent discharge methodologies. It is found that separate evaporator and condenser discharges potentially increase OTEC net power limits by about 60% over a comparable mixed discharge scenario. This stems from a relatively less severe degradation of the thermal resource at given OTEC seawater flow rates, which corresponds to a smaller heat input into the ocean. Next, the most practical case of a mixed discharge into the mixed layer is found to correspond to only 80% of the so-called baseline case (mixed discharge at a water depth of initial neutral buoyancy). In general, locating effluent discharges at initial neutral-buoyancy depths appears to be nearly optimal in terms of OTEC net power production limits. The depth selected for the OTEC condenser effluent discharge, however, has by far the greatest impact. Clearly, these results are preliminary and should be investigated in more complex ocean general circulation models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Litter Inputs from the Adour River (Southwest France) to the Marine Environment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010024
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
Rivers are major pathways for litter to enter the ocean, especially plastic debris. Yet, further research is needed to improve knowledge on rivers contribution, increase data availability, refine litter origins, and develop relevant solutions to limit riverine litter inputs. This study presents the
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Rivers are major pathways for litter to enter the ocean, especially plastic debris. Yet, further research is needed to improve knowledge on rivers contribution, increase data availability, refine litter origins, and develop relevant solutions to limit riverine litter inputs. This study presents the results of three years of aquatic litter monitoring on the Adour river catchment (southwest of France). Litter monitoring consisted of collecting all litter stranded on river banks or stuck in the riparian vegetation in defined areas identified from cartographic and hydromorphological analyses, and with the support of local stakeholders. Litter samples were then sorted and counted according to a list of items containing 130 categories. Since 2014, 278 litter samplings were carried out, and 120,632 litter items were collected, sorted, and counted. 41% of litter could not be identified due to high degradation. Food and beverage packaging, smoking-related items, sewage related debris, fishery and mariculture gear, and common household items represented around 70% of identifiable items. Overall, the present study contributes to our knowledge of litter sources and pathways, with the target of reducing the amounts entering the ocean. The long-term application of this monitoring is a way forward to measure societal changes as well as assess effectiveness of measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Environment Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Analysis of 3D Reconstruction Parameters of Multi-Materialsin Soft Clay
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010023
Received: 10 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract
The results of the three-dimensional reconstruction of soil were derived from the X-ray absorption coefficient of the material itself. However, the absorption coefficient is not a fixed value, and is related to densities, chemical molecular weight, and the weight percentages of chemical components.
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The results of the three-dimensional reconstruction of soil were derived from the X-ray absorption coefficient of the material itself. However, the absorption coefficient is not a fixed value, and is related to densities, chemical molecular weight, and the weight percentages of chemical components. How to accurately obtain the density of one component is a vital issue in multi-materials. In this study, the influence of the physical parameters of each component in the data-constrained modeling (DCM) of the microstructure of soft clay was investigated. The results showed that density changes were more prominent. A reasonable multi-component density was calculated, and the density of organic matter had a significant effect on the volume percentage of three-dimensional soft clay. In the clay mineral montmorillonite, the density significantly affected the volume percentage data, which directly limited the accuracy of the material distribution analysis. Based on this, other physical parameters of each component in the data constraint model could be further explored. Based on the density value of the simple material, a reasonable multi-materials density was calculated, which provides a quantitative method for the evolution analysis of soil structure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Macro and Micro Properties of Organic Matter in Hydraulic Mud Consolidation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010022
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Due to the co-existence of multiple organics and multiple length scales of the structure, quantitative characterization of the microstructure of organic matter in hydraulic mud consolidations, and understanding the impact on its mechanical properties have been challenging topics. This article attempts to tackle
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Due to the co-existence of multiple organics and multiple length scales of the structure, quantitative characterization of the microstructure of organic matter in hydraulic mud consolidations, and understanding the impact on its mechanical properties have been challenging topics. This article attempts to tackle the challenge using lab experiments and a data-constrained modelling (DCM) approach combined with multi-energy synchrotron-based X-ray micro-CT (computed tomography). In this paper, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other different technical means were combined to study the microstructure of hydraulic mud composition and distribution. One unmodified hydraulic mud and four remolded samples were analyzed in vacuum preloading tests corresponding to organic matter contents of 1.65%, 3.75%, 5.15%, 8.65%, and 11.15%, respectively. Organic matter plays a significant role in hindering the shear strength of consolidation. Macro- and microstructure under different pressures could be extracted by the DCM and X-ray CT. The DCM-reconstructed microstructure of fine-grained soil from hydraulic mud is presented by four groups: organic matter, two groups of minerals, and pores. Different groups are displayed with different colors, which could clarify the distributions and density degrees of each component (group). The macro- and microstructures and the distribution of organic matter were quantified and compared among groups. It was demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the organic matter were closely correlated to the meso- and nano-scale clusters of porosity and minerals. The variation of organic clusters with loading pressure, and the number of sub-macro organic clusters, were small. Three scales of organic cluster (40–400 μm, 4–40 μm, and 0.4–4 μm) changed visibly in consolidation at 200 kPa and 800 kPa. The analysis has shown that pressures of 100 kPa and 400 kPa could be used as two characteristic values of structure change of hydraulic mud, which perhaps matched the turning points of destruction. The DCM approach, combined with multi-energy synchrotron-based X-ray micro-CT presented here, are applicable in studying the relationship between the microstructure and macro-properties for various other engineering materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Double-Stage Rankine Cycle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010021
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) using non-azeotropic mixtures such as ammonia/water as working fluid and the multistage cycle has been investigated in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the cycle because of small ocean temperature differences. The performance and effectiveness of the
[...] Read more.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) using non-azeotropic mixtures such as ammonia/water as working fluid and the multistage cycle has been investigated in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the cycle because of small ocean temperature differences. The performance and effectiveness of the multistage cycle are barely understood. In addition, previous evaluation methods of heat exchange process cannot clearly indicate the influence of the thermophysical characteristics of the working fluid on the power output. Consequently, this study investigated the influence of reduction of the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process on the system performance in double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid. Single Rankine, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles were analyzed to ascertain the system characteristics. The simple evaluation method of the temperature difference between the working fluid and the seawater is applied to this analysis. From the results of the parametric performance analysis it can be considered that double-stage Rankine cycle using pure working fluid can reduce the irreversible losses in the heat exchange process as with the Kalina cycle using an ammonia/water mixture. Considering the maximum power efficiency obtained in the study, double-stage Rankine and Kalina cycles can improve the power output by reducing the irreversible losses in the cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Determination of the Potential Thermal Gradient for the Mexican Pacific Ocean
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010020
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
The energy potential of the oceanic thermal gradients of the Mexican Pacific Ocean was valued theoretically, using seasonal oceanographic data on surface and 1000 m depth ocean temperatures from 1955 to 2013, taken from the World Ocean Database (WOD). The study was carried
[...] Read more.
The energy potential of the oceanic thermal gradients of the Mexican Pacific Ocean was valued theoretically, using seasonal oceanographic data on surface and 1000 m depth ocean temperatures from 1955 to 2013, taken from the World Ocean Database (WOD). The study was carried out to determine possible sites for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), assuming that the minimum usable gradient is 20 °C and the maximum profitable distance from the extraction site to the shore is 10 km. Geographic Information System tools were used to compute thermal gradients and distances to shore all along the Mexican coast. Then, the optimal sites were identified. The results show that the best sites for OTEC exploitation are found in the southern Pacific coast on the littoral of the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessEditorial Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts, and Adaptation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010019
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a great threat to approximately 10% of the world’s population residing in low-elevation coastal zones (i.e., land located up to 10 m of present-day mean sea-level (MSL))[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Construction of a Static Model for Power Generation of OTEC Plant Using Uehara Cycle Based on Experimental Data
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010018
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper considers the construction of a static model for the power generation of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant using Uehara cycle. The model is constructed based on experimental data obtained from an actual experimental OTEC plant. In this paper, two
[...] Read more.
This paper considers the construction of a static model for the power generation of an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant using Uehara cycle. The model is constructed based on experimental data obtained from an actual experimental OTEC plant. In this paper, two kinds of static models are proposed. In both models, the relations among significant quantities are represented by polynomials. The polynomials are determined via least squares for experimental data, and the orders of polynomial which minimize the integral of absolute error between experimental data and simulation results of power generation are adopted. The usefulness and limitations of the proposed models are evaluated by simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle The Level of Automation in Emergency Quick Disconnect Decision Making
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010017
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
As a key measure for safety and environmental protection during offshore well operations, drill rigs are equipped with Emergency Quick Disconnect (EQD) systems. However, an EQD operation is in itself considered a risky operation with a major economic impact. For this reason, it
[...] Read more.
As a key measure for safety and environmental protection during offshore well operations, drill rigs are equipped with Emergency Quick Disconnect (EQD) systems. However, an EQD operation is in itself considered a risky operation with a major economic impact. For this reason, it is of great importance to aid the operators in their assessment of the situation at all times, and help them make the best decisions. However, despite the availability of such systems, accidents do happen. This demonstrates the vulnerability of our human decision-making capabilities in extremely stressful situations. One way of improving the overall human-system performance with respect to EQD is to increase the level and quality of the automation and decision support systems. Although there is plenty of evidence that automated systems have weaknesses, there is also evidence that advanced software systems outperform humans in complex decision-making. The major challenge is to make sure that EQD is performed when necessary, but there is also a need to decrease the number of false EQDs. This paper applies an existing framework for levels of automation in order to explore the critical decision process leading to an EQD. We provide an overview of the benefits and drawbacks of existing automation and decision support systems vs. manual human decision-making. Data are collected from interviews of offshore users, suppliers, and oil companies, as well as from formal operational procedures. Findings are discussed using an established framework for the level of automation. Our conclusion is that there is an appropriate level of automation in critical situations related to the loss of the position of the drill rig, and that there is the promising potential to increase the autonomy level in a mid- and long-term situation assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Environment Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Investigation of Extreme Wave-Induced Loading on Box Girder in Marine Environment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010016
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a 2D numerical model for wave-girder interaction was proposed to estimate the maximum wave forces on the box girder of a coastal bridge under extreme wave conditions. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were applied to simulate water wave motion
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a 2D numerical model for wave-girder interaction was proposed to estimate the maximum wave forces on the box girder of a coastal bridge under extreme wave conditions. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were applied to simulate water wave motion and the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to track the free surface. In this study, the developed 2D numerical model was validated by first comparing with experimental data. Then, a set of parametric studies was conducted to examine the effects of the wave heights, wave periods, water depths and submerged coefficients on the wave force on the box girder under extreme wave conditions. Finally, a function to predict the extreme wave-induced forces on the box girder under various wave conditions was proposed for engineering practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Marine Information System for Environmental Monitoring: ARGO-MIS
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010015
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
Sea shipping routes have become very crowded and this, coupled with an always increasing demand of oil based products, contributes to the increase in maritime traffic density, as a consequence pollution risks have increased. Therefore, it is important to have information systems capable
[...] Read more.
Sea shipping routes have become very crowded and this, coupled with an always increasing demand of oil based products, contributes to the increase in maritime traffic density, as a consequence pollution risks have increased. Therefore, it is important to have information systems capable of detecting and monitoring environmental endangering situations like oil spills at sea. In this paper, a Marine Information System, acting as an integrated and inter-operable monitoring tool is proposed and discussed. The discussion focuses on a system that is able to integrate different data acquired from various electronic sensors, and that is inter-operable among marine operators and ship traffic authorities. The available data on the system are all geo-referenced, and flows seamlessly through the system, where they are integrated in a consistent and usable manner. An important result of this integration is the capability to produce a collection of proactive services such as Decision Support ones, which can be used to improve the functionalities and facilities concerned in an intervention operation. Through the implementation of these services, we aim to demonstrate how an efficient environmental management system could benefit from being supported by a Marine Information System that can provide the dynamic links between different data, models and actors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Environment Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Characteristics and Duration of Extreme Wave Events around the English Coastline
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010014
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the spatial characteristics and duration of extreme wave events around the English coast. There are five geographic regions which are affected as coherent units under extreme wave conditions, incorporating a sixth micro-wave climate region (western Lyme Bay).
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the spatial characteristics and duration of extreme wave events around the English coast. There are five geographic regions which are affected as coherent units under extreme wave conditions, incorporating a sixth micro-wave climate region (western Lyme Bay). Characteristic storm tracks are associated with each region. Storms affecting the East region (North Sea coast) seldom impact other areas of England, whilst in contrast, storms affecting the Southwest or Northwest also have some impact on the Southeast. Average storm duration varies from 5 h in the Northwest to 14 h on the East coast north of the Humber. Storm duration exceeding 12.5 h in the Southwest and East (northern half) near guarantees that storm waves will span High Water, when it is of most significance for beach management operations. Storms along the East coast can be associated with anticyclonic conditions, as well as low pressure systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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Open AccessReview Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010013
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the
[...] Read more.
Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs) events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
Open AccessArticle How Well Do AR5 Sea Surface-Height Model Projections Match Observational Rates of Sea-Level Rise at the Regional Scale?
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010011
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
The reliance upon and importance of climate models continues to grow in line with strengthening evidence of a changing climate system and the necessity to provide credible projections for risk assessment to guide policy development, mitigation and adaptation responses. The utility of the
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The reliance upon and importance of climate models continues to grow in line with strengthening evidence of a changing climate system and the necessity to provide credible projections for risk assessment to guide policy development, mitigation and adaptation responses. The utility of the models to project regional rates of sea-level rise over the course of the 21st century is reliant on evaluating model outputs against global observational data (principally altimetry products). This study compares rates of sea-level rise from observational data records (tide gauges) against the ensemble mean of the model-projection products used in AR5 at 19 sites around the world over the decade of common data coverage (2007–2016) using enhanced time-series analysis techniques. Although it could be concluded that the observational and model-projected average velocity agree (95% confidence level (CL)), error margins are comparatively wide, masking the fact that the mean velocity for the model-projection products exceed observational records for nearly all stations and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) experiments, and are likely in the range of 1.6–2.5 mm/year. The analysis might provide an early warning sign that the evaluation of ocean model components with respect to projected mean sea level could be relevantly improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Evaluation of the Large-Scale Implementation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Using an Ocean General Circulation Model with Low-Complexity Atmospheric Feedback Effects
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010012
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Previous investigations of the large-scale deployment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversions (OTEC) systems are extended by allowing some atmospheric feedback in an ocean general circulation model. A modified ocean-atmosphere thermal boundary condition is used where relaxation corresponds to atmospheric longwave radiation to space,
[...] Read more.
Previous investigations of the large-scale deployment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversions (OTEC) systems are extended by allowing some atmospheric feedback in an ocean general circulation model. A modified ocean-atmosphere thermal boundary condition is used where relaxation corresponds to atmospheric longwave radiation to space, and an additional term expresses horizontal atmospheric transport. This produces lower steady-state OTEC power maxima (8 to 10.2 TW instead of 14.1 TW for global OTEC scenarios, and 7.2 to 9.3 TW instead of 11.9 TW for OTEC implementation within 100 km of coastlines). When power production peaks, power intensity remains practically unchanged, at 0.2 TW per Sverdrup of OTEC deep cold seawater, suggesting a similar degradation of the OTEC thermal resource. Large-scale environmental effects include surface cooling in low latitudes and warming elsewhere, with a net heat intake within the water column. These changes develop rapidly from the propagation of Kelvin and Rossby waves, and ocean current advection. Two deep circulation cells are generated in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific basins. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is reinforced while an AMOC-like feature appears in the North Pacific, with deep convective winter events at high latitudes. Transport between the Indo-Pacific and the Southern Ocean is strengthened, with impacts on the Atlantic via the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithms under Different Environmental Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010010
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Underwater images usually suffer from poor visibility, lack of contrast and colour casting, mainly due to light absorption and scattering. In literature, there are many algorithms aimed to enhance the quality of underwater images through different approaches. Our purpose was to identify an
[...] Read more.
Underwater images usually suffer from poor visibility, lack of contrast and colour casting, mainly due to light absorption and scattering. In literature, there are many algorithms aimed to enhance the quality of underwater images through different approaches. Our purpose was to identify an algorithm that performs well in different environmental conditions. We have selected some algorithms from the state of the art and we have employed them to enhance a dataset of images produced in various underwater sites, representing different environmental and illumination conditions. These enhanced images have been evaluated through some quantitative metrics. By analysing the results of these metrics, we tried to understand which of the selected algorithms performed better than the others. Another purpose of our research was to establish if a quantitative metric was enough to judge the behaviour of an underwater image enhancement algorithm. We aim to demonstrate that, even if the metrics can provide an indicative estimation of image quality, they could lead to inconsistent or erroneous evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Environment Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Oil Droplet Transport under Non-Breaking Waves: An Eulerian RANS Approach Combined with a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010007
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Oil droplet transport under a non-breaking deep water wave field is investigated herein using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD). The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were solved to simulate regular waves in the absence of wind stress, and the resulting water velocities agreed with Stokes
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Oil droplet transport under a non-breaking deep water wave field is investigated herein using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD). The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were solved to simulate regular waves in the absence of wind stress, and the resulting water velocities agreed with Stokes theory for waves. The RANS velocity field was then used to predict the transport of buoyant particles representing oil droplets under the effect of non-locally generated turbulence. The RANS eddy viscosity exhibited an increase with depth until reaching a maximum at approximately a wave height below the mean water level. This was followed by a gradual decrease with depth. The impact of the turbulence was modeled using the local value of eddy diffusivity in a random walk framework with the added effects of the gradient of eddy diffusivity. The vertical gradient of eddy viscosity increased the residence time of droplets in the water column region of high diffusivity; neglecting the gradient of eddy diffusivity resulted in a deviation of the oil plume centroid by more than a half a wave height after 10 wave periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oil Spills 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Integrated System Design for a Large Wind Turbine Supported on a Moored Semi-Submersible Platform
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010009
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Over the past few decades, wind energy has emerged as an alternative to conventional power generation that is economical, environmentally friendly and, importantly, renewable. Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent
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Over the past few decades, wind energy has emerged as an alternative to conventional power generation that is economical, environmentally friendly and, importantly, renewable. Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent wind resource compared to that over land. To meet the projected “20% energy from wind by 2030” scenario that was announced in 2006, 54 GW of added wind energy capacity need to come from offshore according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. In this study, we discuss the development of a semi-submersible floating offshore platform with a catenary mooring system to support a very large 13.2-MW wind turbine with 100-m blades. An iterative design process is applied to baseline models with Froude scaling in order to achieve preliminary static stability. Structural dynamic analyses are performed to investigate the performance of the new model using a finite element method approach for the tower and a boundary integral equation (panel) method for the platform. The steady-state response of the system under uniform wind and regular waves is first studied to evaluate the performance of the integrated system. Response amplitude operators (RAOs) are computed in the time domain using white-noise wave excitation; this serves to highlight nonlinear, as well as dynamic characteristics of the system. Finally, selected design load cases (DLCs) and the stochastic dynamic response of the system are studied to assess the global performance for sea states defined by wind fields with turbulence and long-crested irregular waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Wind Structures)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering in 2017
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010008
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Journal of Marine Science and Engineering maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Antimacrofouling Efficacy of Innovative Inorganic Nanomaterials Loaded with Booster Biocides
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010006
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
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Abstract
The application of nano-structured compounds has been increasing rapidly in recent years, in several fields. The use of engineered nano-materials as carriers of antifouling compounds is just beginning and already reveals clear advantages compared to bulk active compounds, such as slowed and controlled
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The application of nano-structured compounds has been increasing rapidly in recent years, in several fields. The use of engineered nano-materials as carriers of antifouling compounds is just beginning and already reveals clear advantages compared to bulk active compounds, such as slowed and controlled release, novel functionality, and high loading capacity. This present study assesses the antifouling efficacy of two nanostructured materials, spherical mesoporous silica nanocapsules (SiNC) and Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH), loaded with two commercial biocides, zinc prithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT). The study used adult mussels from three geographical regions, the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea, to examine the efficacy of the innovative compounds. The efficacy of these compounds on larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea was also examined. The results of this study demonstrated the environmentally friendly properties of unloaded LDH against the two-model systems, adult mussels or bryozoan larvae. ZnPT entrapped in LDH demonstrated the most effective antifouling compound against the two model systems. A comparison of the impact of the two compounds on macrofouling organisms from the different marine habitats examined in this study indicates a distinction associated with the organisms’ different ecosystems. The Red Sea mussels and bryozoans, representing a tropical marine ecosystem, yielded the highest efficacy values among tested Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea mussels and bryozoans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Quantifying Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Review
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010005
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
The complexity of quantifying ecosystem services in monetary terms has long been a challenging issue for economists and ecologists. Many case specific valuation studies have been carried out in various parts of the World. Yet, a coherent review on the valuation of coastal
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The complexity of quantifying ecosystem services in monetary terms has long been a challenging issue for economists and ecologists. Many case specific valuation studies have been carried out in various parts of the World. Yet, a coherent review on the valuation of coastal ecosystem services (CES), which systematically describes fundamental concepts, analyzes reported applications, and addresses the issue of climate change (CC) impacts on the monetary value of CES is still lacking. Here, we take a step towards addressing this knowledge gap by pursuing a coherent review that aims to provide policy makers and researchers in multidisciplinary teams with a summary of the state-of-the-art and a guideline on the process of economic valuation of CES and potential changes in these values due to CC impacts. The article highlights the main concepts of CES valuation studies and offers a systematic analysis of the best practices by analyzing two global scale and 30 selected local and regional case studies, in which different CES have been valued. Our analysis shows that coral reefs and mangroves are among the most frequently valued ecosystems, while sea-grass beds are the least considered ones. Currently, tourism and recreation services as well as storm protection are two of the most considered services representing higher estimated value than other CES. In terms of the valuation techniques used, avoided damage, replacement and substitute cost method as well as stated preference method are among the most commonly used valuation techniques. Following the above analysis, we propose a methodological framework that provides step-wise guidance and better insight into the linkages between climate change impacts and the monetary value of CES. This highlights two main types of CC impacts on CES: one being the climate regulation services of coastal ecosystems, and the other being the monetary value of services, which is subject to substantial uncertainty. Finally, a systematic four-step approach is proposed to effectively monetize potential CC driven variations in the value of CES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Oil Spill Detection and Mapping Using Sentinel 2 Imagery
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010004
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 6 January 2018
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Abstract
Two object-based image analysis methods are developed for detecting oil spills from known natural outflows as well as light oil spill events using Sentinel 2 imagery. The methods are applied to Sentinel 2 images of a known area of natural oil outflow as
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Two object-based image analysis methods are developed for detecting oil spills from known natural outflows as well as light oil spill events using Sentinel 2 imagery. The methods are applied to Sentinel 2 images of a known area of natural oil outflow as well as on a Sentinel 2 image of a recent oil spill event along the south coast of Athens, Greece. The preliminary results are considered very successful and consistent, with a high degree of applicability to other Sentinel 2 satellite images. Further testing and fine tuning of the proposed object-based methodology should be carried out using atmospheric correction and ground truth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Environment Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Two Centuries of Climate Change and Climate Variability, East Coast Australia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010003
Received: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
On the east Australian coast, climate change is expressed as a slowly rising sea level. Analysis of records, dating back over two centuries, also shows oscillating multidecadal ‘storm’ and ‘drought’ dominated climate periods that are distinct from long-term climate change. Climate variability, as
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On the east Australian coast, climate change is expressed as a slowly rising sea level. Analysis of records, dating back over two centuries, also shows oscillating multidecadal ‘storm’ and ‘drought’ dominated climate periods that are distinct from long-term climate change. Climate variability, as expressed by these distinct multidecadal periods, is generally associated with phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation Index (IPO). Two centuries of climate and coastline response are examined for the central east coast of Australia, between Fraser Island and Coffs Harbour. The long record has been compiled by analysing a wide range of indicators and observations, including: historical accounts, storm records, sea level trends, assessment of storm erosion faces, and coastal movement in relation to fixed monuments, surveys, and maps. Periods of suppressed sea level, beach accretion, and drought were found to be associated with strongly positive IPO. Periods of higher sea level, increased storminess, and beach erosion were associated with strongly negative IPO. Understanding the behaviour of climate variability over different timescales has the potential to improve the understanding of, and responses to, climate change. This will be important in the sustainable management of geomorphic and ecological systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk)
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Open AccessArticle Automated Image Analysis of Offshore Infrastructure Marine Biofouling
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010002
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
In the UK, some of the oldest oil and gas installations have been in the water for over 40 years and have considerable colonisation by marine organisms, which may lead to both industry challenges and/or potential biodiversity benefits (e.g., artificial reefs). The project
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In the UK, some of the oldest oil and gas installations have been in the water for over 40 years and have considerable colonisation by marine organisms, which may lead to both industry challenges and/or potential biodiversity benefits (e.g., artificial reefs). The project objective was to test the use of an automated image analysis software (CoralNet) on images of marine biofouling from offshore platforms on the UK continental shelf, with the aim of (i) training the software to identify the main marine biofouling organisms on UK platforms; (ii) testing the software performance on 3 platforms under 3 different analysis criteria (methods A–C); (iii) calculating the percentage cover of marine biofouling organisms and (iv) providing recommendations to industry. Following software training with 857 images, and testing of three platforms, results showed that diversity of the three platforms ranged from low (in the central North Sea) to moderate (in the northern North Sea). The two central North Sea platforms were dominated by the plumose anemone Metridium dianthus; and the northern North Sea platform showed less obvious species domination. Three different analysis criteria were created, where the method of selection of points, number of points assessed and confidence level thresholds (CT) varied: (method A) random selection of 20 points with CT 80%, (method B) stratified random of 50 points with CT of 90% and (method C) a grid approach of 100 points with CT of 90%. Performed across the three platforms, the results showed that there were no significant differences across the majority of species and comparison pairs. No significant difference (across all species) was noted between confirmed annotations methods (A, B and C). It was considered that the software performed well for the classification of the main fouling species in the North Sea. Overall, the study showed that the use of automated image analysis software may enable a more efficient and consistent approach to marine biofouling analysis on offshore structures; enabling the collection of environmental data for decommissioning and other operational industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maritime Environment Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Salinity on Bubble Cloud Characteristics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6010001
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 29 December 2017
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Abstract
A laboratory experiment investigates the influence of salinity on the characteristics of bubble clouds in varying saline solutions. Bubble clouds were generated with a water jet. Salinity, surface tension, and water temperature were monitored. Measured bubble cloud parameters include the number of bubbles,
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A laboratory experiment investigates the influence of salinity on the characteristics of bubble clouds in varying saline solutions. Bubble clouds were generated with a water jet. Salinity, surface tension, and water temperature were monitored. Measured bubble cloud parameters include the number of bubbles, the void fraction, the penetration depth, and the cloud shape. The number of large (above 0.5 mm diameter) bubbles within a cloud increases by a factor of three from fresh to saline water of 20 psu (practical salinity units), and attains a maximum value for salinity of 12–25 psu. The void fraction also has maximum value in the range 12–25 psu. The results thus show that both the number of bubbles and the void fraction vary nonmonotonically with increasing salinity. The lateral shape of the bubble cloud does not change with increasing salinity; however, the lowest point of the cloud penetrates deeper as smaller bubbles are generated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
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