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Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1224-1251; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041224

Grain Sorghum: A Conundrum for Chicken-Meat Production

1
Poultry Research Foundation, Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, 425 Werombi Road, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia
2
Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI) Centre for Nutrition and Food Science, The University of Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
3
Department of Plant and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
4
Australian Proteome Analysis Facility, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wayne L. Bryden
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [294 KB, uploaded 8 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy utilisation. The recent quantification of kafirin, the dominant protein fraction in sorghum, has allowed its nutritional significance to be assessed. This is important as indirect evidence suggests that kafirin concentrations in local sorghums are increasing as an unintended consequence of breeding programs. Presently, Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannin but, from analyses and assessments of other polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acids, “non-tannin” phenols appear to be negative influences. Anecdotally, white sorghums are considered to be superior to red varieties thus the fact that polyphenolic pigments are responsible for the “redness” of sorghum assumes relevance. Inclusions of sulphite reducing agents in broiler diets have generated promising responses but seem dependent on sorghum properties. Preliminary studies have shown the possibilities of using rapid visco-analyser (RVA) starch pasting profiles, promatest protein solubilities and grain textures to indicate sorghum quality and further studies are required to confirm these hypotheses. These assessments may indicate which sorghums will best respond to reducing agents such as sodium metabisulphite. Finally, the usually modest responses of broilers to exogenous feed enzyme inclusions in sorghum-based are considered in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzyme; kafirin; phenolic compounds; phytate; poultry; protein; Rapid Visco-Analysis; sorghum; starch enzyme; kafirin; phenolic compounds; phytate; poultry; protein; Rapid Visco-Analysis; sorghum; starch
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.Y.; Fox, G.; Khoddami, A.; Neilson, K.A.; Truong, H.H.; Moss, A.F.; Selle, P.H. Grain Sorghum: A Conundrum for Chicken-Meat Production. Agriculture 2015, 5, 1224-1251.

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