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Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1195-1203; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041195

Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

1
Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2
Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7024, SE-750-07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wayne L. Bryden
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
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Abstract

A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22), Binh Phuoc (25), Dak Lak (30) and Dak Nong (20). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and zearalenone (ZEA) were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%), followed by aflatoxins (55.7%) and zearalenone (27.8%). The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7%) in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%), while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg). Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70%) that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb) aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53%) contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; fumonisins; zearalenone; maize; Vietnam aflatoxins; fumonisins; zearalenone; maize; Vietnam
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Phuong, N.H.; Thieu, N.Q.; Ogle, B.; Pettersson, H. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam. Agriculture 2015, 5, 1195-1203.

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