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Agriculture, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-57

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Agriculture in 2013
Agriculture 2014, 4(1), 30-31; doi:10.3390/agriculture4010030
Received: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Agriculture would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessReview Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review
Agriculture 2014, 4(1), 1-29; doi:10.3390/agriculture4010001
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that [...] Read more.
Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety Management and Poultry Production)
Open AccessReview Hyperspectral and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging for Early Detection of Plant Diseases, with Special Reference to Fusarium spec. Infections on Wheat
Agriculture 2014, 4(1), 32-57; doi:10.3390/agriculture4010032
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, market pressures have reinforced the demand to solve the problem of an increased occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal production, especially in wheat. The symptoms of this disease are clearly detectable by means of image analysis. This [...] Read more.
In recent years, market pressures have reinforced the demand to solve the problem of an increased occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal production, especially in wheat. The symptoms of this disease are clearly detectable by means of image analysis. This technique can therefore be used to map occurrence and extent of Fusarium infections. From this perspective, a separate harvest in the field can be taken into consideration. Based on the application of chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging, characteristics, requirements and limitations of Fusarium detection on wheat, both in the field and in the laboratory, are discussed. While the modification of spectral signatures due to fungal infection allows its detection by hyperspectral imaging, the decreased physiological activity of tissues resulting from Fusarium impacts provides the base for CFI analyses. In addition, the two methods are compared in view of their usability for the detection of Fusarium, and different approaches for data analysis are presented. Full article
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