CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants
AbstractAdjuvants improve host responsiveness to co-delivered vaccines through a variety of mechanisms. Agents that trigger cells expressing Toll-like receptors (TLR) activate an innate immune response that enhances the induction of vaccine-specific immunity. When administered in combination with vaccines designed to prevent or slow tumor growth, TLR agonists have significantly improved the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Unfortunately, vaccines containing TLR agonists have rarely been able to eliminate large established tumors when administered systemically. To improve efficacy, attention has focused on delivering TLR agonists intra-tumorally with the intent of altering the tumor microenvironment. Agonists targeting TLRs 7/8 or 9 can reduce the frequency of Tregs while causing immunosuppressive MDSC in the tumor bed to differentiate into tumoricidal macrophages thereby enhancing tumor elimination. This work reviews pre-clinical and clinical studies concerning the utility of TLR 7/8/9 agonists as adjuvants for tumor vaccines. View Full-Text
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Shirota, H.; Tross, D.; Klinman, D.M. CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants. Vaccines 2015, 3, 390-407.
Shirota H, Tross D, Klinman DM. CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants. Vaccines. 2015; 3(2):390-407.Chicago/Turabian Style
Shirota, Hidekazu; Tross, Debra; Klinman, Dennis M. 2015. "CpG Oligonucleotides as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants." Vaccines 3, no. 2: 390-407.