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Vaccines 2015, 3(2), 420-428; doi:10.3390/vaccines3020420

Integrating Immune Checkpoint Blockade with Anti-Neo/Mutated Antigens Reactivity to Increase the Clinical Outcome of Immunotherapy

1
Italian Network for Bio-therapy of Tumors-(NIBIT)-Laboratory, c/o University Hospital of Siena, V. le Bracci, 16, Siena 53100, Italy
2
Division of Medical Oncology and Immunotherapy, University Hospital of Siena, V. le Bracci, 16, Siena 53100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary Lenora (Nora) Disis
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [187 KB, uploaded 21 May 2015]

Abstract

Antibodies to immune checkpoints have entered the clinical arena and have been shown to provide a clinical benefit for metastatic melanoma and, possibly, for other tumors as well. In this review paper we summarize this therapeutic activity and underline the functional mechanisms that may be involved. Among them, we discuss the so far neglected role of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) deriving from tumor somatic mutations and summarize the results of recent trials showing the immunogenic strength of such TAAs which can be specifically targeted by T cells activated by immune checkpoint antibodies. Finally we discuss new immunotherapy approaches that involve the combination of self/shared- or neo-TAAs-based vaccines and immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, to increase the clinical response of metastatic melanoma patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune checkpoint antibodies; neo/mutated tumor antigens; melanoma immunotherapy immune checkpoint antibodies; neo/mutated tumor antigens; melanoma immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parmiani, G.; Maccalli, C.; Maio, M. Integrating Immune Checkpoint Blockade with Anti-Neo/Mutated Antigens Reactivity to Increase the Clinical Outcome of Immunotherapy. Vaccines 2015, 3, 420-428.

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