Table of Contents
Brain Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2018)
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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel is blocked, causing damage in the focal area and [...] Read more. Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel is blocked, causing damage in the focal area and adjacent penumbra regions, as a result of ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). Brain ischemia is strongly associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and increased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). PC12 cells deprived of oxygen and glucose followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R), have been used to mimic some of the properties of cerebral IRI and have been instrumental in identifying mechanisms such as calcium overload, redox potential, lipid peroxidation and MAPKs modulation. This model was useful for establishing mechanisms of neuroprotection of bioactive compounds, drugs and growth factors secreted by stem cells, affecting the MAPK cascade and redox potential. The lesson learned from the PC12 OGD/R cell model calls for antioxidants and growth factors, as suitable drug candidates for ischemic stroke therapy.