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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 600;

Endoscopic Laser-Based 3D Imaging for Functional Voice Diagnostics

University Hospital Erlangen, Medical School, Division of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Waldstr. 1, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 2-6, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Paul-Gordan-Str. 6, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Inam Ul Ahad
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering Applications)


Recently, we reported on the in vivo application of a miniaturized measuring device for 3D visualization of the superior vocal fold vibrations from high-speed recordings in combination with a laser projection unit (LPU). As a long-term vision for this proof of principle, we strive to integrate the further developed laserendoscopy as a diagnostic method in daily clinical routine. The new LPU mainly comprises a Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm/CW/2 ω ) and a diffractive optical element (DOE) generating a regular laser grid (31 × 31 laser points) that is projected on the vocal folds. By means of stereo triangulation, the 3D coordinates of the laser points are reconstructed from the endoscopic high-speed footage. The new design of the laserendoscope constitutes a compromise between robust image processing and laser safety regulations. The algorithms for calibration and analysis are now optimized with respect to their overall duration and the number of required interactions, which is objectively assessed using binary classifiers. The sensitivity and specificity of the calibration procedure are increased by 40.1% and 22.3%, which is statistically significant. The overall duration for the laser point detection is reduced by 41.9%. The suggested semi-automatic reconstruction software represents an important stepping-stone towards potential real time processing and a comprehensive, objective diagnostic tool of evidence-based medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D imaging; endoscopy; laser projection; high-speed imaging; automation; vocal folds; larynx 3D imaging; endoscopy; laser projection; high-speed imaging; automation; vocal folds; larynx

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Semmler, M.; Kniesburges, S.; Parchent, J.; Jakubaß, B.; Zimmermann, M.; Bohr, C.; Schützenberger, A.; Döllinger, M. Endoscopic Laser-Based 3D Imaging for Functional Voice Diagnostics. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 600.

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