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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 548; doi:10.3390/app7060548

Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution

Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 272 01 Kladno, Czech Republic
Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dermot Brabazon
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2906 KB, uploaded 26 May 2017]   |  


We present our recent results, related to nanoscale imaging in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) spectral ranges and demonstrate three novel imaging systems recently developed for the purpose of obtaining high spatial resolution images of nanoscale objects with the EUV and SXR radiations. All the systems are based on laser-plasma EUV and SXR sources, employing a double stream gas puff target. The EUV and SXR full field microscopes—operating at 13.8 nm and 2.88 nm wavelengths, respectively—are currently capable of imaging nanostructures with a sub-50 nm spatial resolution with relatively short (seconds) exposure times. The third system is a SXR contact microscope, operating in the “water-window” spectral range (2.3–4.4 nm wavelength), to produce an imprint of the internal structure of the investigated object in a thin surface layer of SXR light sensitive poly(methyl methacrylate) photoresist. The development of such compact imaging systems is essential to the new research related to biological science, material science, and nanotechnology applications in the near future. Applications of all the microscopes for studies of biological samples including carcinoma cells, diatoms, and neurons are presented. Details about the sources, the microscopes, as well as the imaging results for various objects will be shown and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas puff target; Fresnel zone plates; EUV/SXR microscopy; contact microscopy; imaging; nanometer resolution gas puff target; Fresnel zone plates; EUV/SXR microscopy; contact microscopy; imaging; nanometer resolution

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wachulak, P.; Torrisi, A.; Ayele, M.; Czwartos, J.; Bartnik, A.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fok, T.; Parkman, T.; Salačová, Š.; Turňová, J.; Odstrčil, M.; Fiedorowicz, H. Bioimaging Using Full Field and Contact EUV and SXR Microscopes with Nanometer Spatial Resolution. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 548.

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