Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Sports, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Researchers examined the effects of sleep extension on sleep variables, immune function, stress [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-32
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy Rugby Union players (mean ± SD: age: 18 ± 1 years) performed a low load (15 min) and a high load (90 min) bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test) one week apart. Monitoring assessments were performed immediately prior to and 20 h following each trial. Subjective self-report Well-being Questionnaire (WQ) items showed small to large deteriorations following the high load compared to low load (d = 0.4–1.5, p = 0.03–0.57). A very large increase in resting HR (HRrest) (d = 2.1, p = 0.02), moderate decrease in heart rate variability (HRV) indices (d = 0.7, p = 0.04 and d = 0.7, p = 0.01 for the natural logarithm of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (ln SDNN) and the root square of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD), respectively) and no change in countermovement jump (d = 0.0, p = 0.97) were evident following the high load compared to low load. Individual WQ responses revealed 7/9, 7/9, 6/9, 6/9, 5/9, 3/9 and 1/9 participants reported deteriorations in recovery, sleep quality, motivation, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and appetite, respectively, following the high load compared to low load. Individual analysis indicated a negative response following the high load compared to low load in HRrest, ln SDNN and ln rMSSD for 4/6, 2/6 and 1/6 participants, respectively. Selected WQ items detected group and individual responses to high load and low load highlighting their potential utility. However, objective assessments lacked the sensitivity to detect small individual changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Football)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Reflection to Improve Goal-Directed Self-Talk on Endurance Performance
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the effects of an intervention that encouraged reflection on organic self-talk used during endurance performance. Using an experimental design, we compared the effects of enhancing metacognitive skills by (a) planning and (b) reviewing and evaluating goal-directed self-talk. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion
[...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of an intervention that encouraged reflection on organic self-talk used during endurance performance. Using an experimental design, we compared the effects of enhancing metacognitive skills by (a) planning and (b) reviewing and evaluating goal-directed self-talk. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion cycling task trials in which we hypothesized that the intervention group would perform significantly better than the control group. Further, we expected a reduction in perceived exertion for a given workload among participants following a self-talk intervention. Thirty-four participants completed a time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer test, after which participants were randomly divided into an intervention and control group. The intervention group performed reflection tasks on performance in the time-to-exhaustion test. Participants completed two further time-to-exhaustion tests. Repeated measures analyses of covariance to test whether the intervention group performed for longer indicated no significant difference in time to exhaustion (p = 0.157). Perceived exertion rates were 2.42% higher in the intervention compared to the control group (p = 0.025). In conclusion, in the intervention group, goal-directed self-talk led to increased sensitisation to perceived exertion, and participants chose to stop exercising at this point rather than repeat implementation of self-talk statements and persist for longer. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Aerobic Fitness Testing on a Swim Bench and Treadmill in a Recreational Surfing Cohort: A Pilot Study
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intermittent manner of surfing accentuates the importance of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Currently, the optimal method of assessing surfing-specific aerobic fitness is using a swim bench (SWB) ergometer; however, their limited availability presents a barrier to surfers wanting to
[...] Read more.
The intermittent manner of surfing accentuates the importance of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Currently, the optimal method of assessing surfing-specific aerobic fitness is using a swim bench (SWB) ergometer; however, their limited availability presents a barrier to surfers wanting to know their maximal aerobic power (VO2peak). As a result, the aims of this pilot study were to determine the VO2peak of recreational surfers using a new commercial SWB ergometer and to propose and examine the feasibility of a regression model to predict SWB ergometer VO2peak values. A total of nine recreational surfers were assessed where body measurements were conducted followed by maximal aerobic capacity testing (swim bench and treadmill) to profile the cohort. Findings demonstrated that VO2peak values were significantly greater (p < 0.001) on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer (M = 66.01 ± 8.23 vs. 37.41 ± 8.73 mL/kg/min). Peak heart rate was also significantly greater on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to produce a model which predicted SWB VO2peak values with an R2 value of 0.863 and an adjusted R2 value of 0.726. The physiological profiling of the recreational cohort coupled with a surfer’s predicted SWB VO2peak value will allow for identification of surfing-specific aerobic fitness levels and evidence-based training recommendations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Assessment of Isometric, Dynamic, and Sports-Specific Upper-Body Strength in Male and Female Competitive Surfers
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
PDF Full-text (1166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the dynamic strength index (DSI): an assessment of upper-body dynamic strength relative to maximal isometric strength. The secondary purpose was to investigate gender differences in the dynamic skill deficit (DSD): an
[...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the dynamic strength index (DSI): an assessment of upper-body dynamic strength relative to maximal isometric strength. The secondary purpose was to investigate gender differences in the dynamic skill deficit (DSD): an assessment of sports-specific dynamic strength relative to maximal isometric strength, and its association with a sports-specific performance measure in surfers. Nine male (age = 30.3 ± 7.3 yrs) and eight female (age = 25.5 ± 5.2 yrs) surfers undertook three upper-body assessments: isometric push-up, dynamic push-up, and a force plate pop-up to determine the DSI and DSD. The performance measure of time taken to pop-up (TTP) was recorded. No gender differences for the DSI (d = 0.48, p = 0.33) or DSD (d = 0.69, p = 0.32) were observed. Normalized peak force (PF) of the isometric push-up, dynamic push-up, and force plate pop-up were significantly greater in males (p ≤ 0.05), with males recording significantly quicker TTP (d = 1.35, p < 0.05). The results suggest that male and female surfers apply a similar proportion of their maximal strength in sports-specific movements. However, greater normalized isometric and dynamic strength in males resulted in greater sports-specific PF application and a faster TTP. It would appear favorable that female surfers improve their maximal strength to facilitate sports-specific pop-up performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Profiling Shoulder Strength in Competitive Surfers
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The shoulder region has the highest incidence of acute injuries in the sport of surfing. Little is known about the strength profile at the shoulder in a surfing cohort. The primary aim of this study was to establish the reliability of a rotator
[...] Read more.
The shoulder region has the highest incidence of acute injuries in the sport of surfing. Little is known about the strength profile at the shoulder in a surfing cohort. The primary aim of this study was to establish the reliability of a rotator cuff strength testing procedure for surfers with a secondary aim of providing a profile of internal and external rotation strength in a competitive surfing cohort. Shoulder internal rotation and external rotation isometric strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer in 13 competitive surfers. Intra-class coefficient values ranged from 0.97 to 0.98 for intra-rater reliability and were lower for inter-rater reliability ranging from 0.80 to 0.91. Internal rotation strength was greater than external rotation strength bilaterally (dominant, p = 0.007, non-dominant, p < 0.001). No differences (p < 0.79) were found in internal rotation strength between the dominant and non-dominant arms. External rotation strength was weaker on the non-dominant arm compared with the dominant arm (p < 0.02). The non-dominant arm external rotation to internal rotation ratio (0.82 ± 0.15) was lower (p = 0.025) than the dominant arm (0.88 ± 0.14). The current procedure is reliable with the same clinician, and results indicate musculature asymmetry specific to the external rotators. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Knee Angle and Stride Length in Association with Ball Speed in Youth Baseball Pitchers
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine whether stride length and knee angle of the leading leg at foot contact, at the instant of maximal external rotation of the shoulder, and at ball release are associated with ball speed in elite youth
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether stride length and knee angle of the leading leg at foot contact, at the instant of maximal external rotation of the shoulder, and at ball release are associated with ball speed in elite youth baseball pitchers. In this study, fifty-two elite youth baseball pitchers (mean age 15.2 SD (standard deviation) 1.7 years) pitched ten fastballs. Data were collected with three high-speed video cameras at a frequency of 240 Hz. Stride length and knee angle of the leading leg were calculated at foot contact, maximal external rotation, and ball release. The associations between these kinematic variables and ball speed were separately determined using generalized estimating equations. Stride length as percentage of body height and knee angle at foot contact were not significantly associated with ball speed. However, knee angles at maximal external rotation and ball release were significantly associated with ball speed. Ball speed increased by 0.45 m/s (1 mph) with an increase in knee extension of 18 degrees at maximal external rotation and 19.5 degrees at ball release. In conclusion, more knee extension of the leading leg at maximal external rotation and ball release is associated with higher ball speeds in elite youth baseball pitchers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Scoring Strategies Differentiating between Winning and Losing Teams during FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the scoring strategies differentiating between winning and losing teams during FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017 in relation to different game scores. Data were gathered for all games of FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017 from the official website. The investigated scoring
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the scoring strategies differentiating between winning and losing teams during FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017 in relation to different game scores. Data were gathered for all games of FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017 from the official website. The investigated scoring strategies were fast break points (FBP); points in the paint (PP); points from turnover (PT); second chance points (SCP); and points from the bench (PB). Games were classified with cluster analysis based on their score difference as close, balanced, and unbalanced and the differences in the scoring strategies between winning and losing teams were assessed using magnitude-based statistics. Results revealed no substantial differences in FBP in any investigated cluster. Furthermore, winning teams showed a substantially higher number of PP and PT (in close and unbalanced games) and SCP (in balanced and unbalanced games) compared to losing teams. Finally, winning teams scored substantially lower and higher number of BPs in close games and unbalanced games, respectively, compared to losing teams. In conclusion, all the investigated scoring strategies discriminate between winning and losing teams in elite women’s basketball except for FBP. These results provide useful information for basketball coaches to optimize their training sessions and game strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Practice and Performance in Basketball)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Perceptions and Determinants of Eating for Health and Performance in High-Level Male Adolescent Rugby Union Players
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sports nutrition recommendations provide guidance on dietary strategies to optimise sports performance. However, research indicates that young athletes often find it difficult to follow these guidelines in practice. Limited research exists on the determinants that influence adherence to sports nutrition guidelines. This study
[...] Read more.
Sports nutrition recommendations provide guidance on dietary strategies to optimise sports performance. However, research indicates that young athletes often find it difficult to follow these guidelines in practice. Limited research exists on the determinants that influence adherence to sports nutrition guidelines. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and determinants of eating for health and performance in high-level male adolescent rugby union players. Determinants were explored using semi-structured individual interviews in New Zealand high-level male rugby union players (n = 20, 16–18 years). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then underwent thematic analysis. Perceptions of eating for health and performance included balance and variety, appropriate portions, and specific foods. Both adolescent- and sport-specific determinants influenced the food choices of participants. Determinants relevant to adolescent lifestyles included the influence of significant others such as peers and family but also included the taste, cost, convenience, and availability of food. Sports-specific determinants revolved around the desire to enhance sports performance, motivation to perform, and team culture. The media (mainstream and social media), physical appearance, and feeling good were identified as both adolescent- and sport-specific factors influencing food choice. These findings highlight the importance of having support and positive role modelling to help young athletes make optimal food choices for health and performance. Strategies to further enable healthy eating practices should aim to strengthen the support available to young athletes in the home, school, and sporting environments and should include education on appropriate social media use to inform eating for health and performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flourishing, Affect, and Relative Autonomy in Adult Exercisers: A Within-Person Basic Psychological Need Fulfillment Perspective
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flourishing is a construct used to understand human growth. Exercise psychology research is scant concerning this valuable construct. Hence, our purpose was to examine different levels of flourishing and related constructs within a large group of self-reported exercisers from a basic psychological need
[...] Read more.
Flourishing is a construct used to understand human growth. Exercise psychology research is scant concerning this valuable construct. Hence, our purpose was to examine different levels of flourishing and related constructs within a large group of self-reported exercisers from a basic psychological need profile perspective. Participants were 389 female and 387 male adults attending fitness centers. Hierarchical cluster analyses revealed the presence of three clusters with significantly different psychological need profiles across the three basic needs. Separate multivariate analyses of variance were used for the analyses for our demographic variables and psychological variables. Follow-up post hoc tests showed that these clusters differed significantly and were low to moderate in meaningfulness regarding exercise min/week and sports experience. The clusters differed significantly, with moderate to large meaningfulness, in flourishing, positive affect, and relative autonomy. Self-reported exercise and sports participation were not the important cluster characteristics. Our results indicated that self-reported levels of flourishing, positive affect, and autonomy differ even within a large group of self-reported exercisers attending fitness centers that on average exceeded the weekly-recommended number of moderate-to-vigorous activity minutes. Thus, our results suggest the importance of fitness centers in meeting their participants’ three basic needs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anthropometric and Physical Performance of Youth Handball Players: The Role of the Relative Age
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 13 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
PDF Full-text (483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The relative age effect is essential throughout all of the talent selection processes in sports, especially during adolescence, which leaves fewer athletes within each cohort that are born late in the selected year. The aim of the present study was to examine
[...] Read more.
Background: The relative age effect is essential throughout all of the talent selection processes in sports, especially during adolescence, which leaves fewer athletes within each cohort that are born late in the selected year. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of relative age in anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of youth handball players by gender. Methods: The sample that was selected included 47 participants (male n = 23, female n = 24). The data collection included anthropometric, body compositions parameters, and physical performance levels. Results: There was a significantly higher representation of players in the first semester in comparison with the second semester, for all of the gender groups, except for the selected male players. In males, statistically significant differences were found in height, sitting height, weight, wingspan, arm and leg circumferences, and in throws speed (in support and in suspension) between those players that were born in the first and second semester. Conclusion: The results confirmed an effect of relative age in the players born in 2002 that were selected to participate in the Spanish Championship, which was different for males and females. In spite of this effect, which only appeared in females, significant differences in the anthropometric and physical conditions appeared in the male players. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Identifying a Test to Monitor Weightlifting Performance in Competitive Male and Female Weightlifters
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
PDF Full-text (587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring tests are commonly used to assess weightlifter’s preparedness for competition. Although various monitoring tests have been used, it is not clear which test is the strongest indicator of weightlifting performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine the relationships
[...] Read more.
Monitoring tests are commonly used to assess weightlifter’s preparedness for competition. Although various monitoring tests have been used, it is not clear which test is the strongest indicator of weightlifting performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine the relationships between vertical jump, isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and weightlifting performance; and (2) compare vertical jumps to IMTP as monitoring tests of weightlifting performance in a large cohort of male and female weightlifters. Methods: Fifty-two competitive weightlifters (31 males, 21 females) participated in squat and countermovement jump testing (SJ, CMJ), and IMTP testing performed on force plates. All laboratory testing data was correlated to a recent competition where the athletes had attempted to peak. Results: Squat jump height (SJH) was the strongest correlate for men and women with the Sinclair Total (r = 0.686, p ≤ 0.01; r = 0.487, p ≤ 0.05, respectively) compared to countermovement jump height (r = 0.642, p ≤ 0.01; r = 0.413, p = 0.063), IMTP peak force allometrically scaled to body mass (r = 0.542, p ≤ 0.01; r = −0.044, p = 0.851) and rate of force development at 200 ms (r = 0.066, p = 0.723; r = 0.086, p = 0.711), respectively. Further, SJH was a stronger correlate of relative weightlifting performance compared to IMTP peak force in females (p = 0.042), but not male weightlifters (p = 0.191). Conclusions: Although CMJ and IMTP are still considered strong indicators of weightlifting performance, SJH appears to be the most indicative measure of weightlifting performance across a wide-range of performance levels. Thus, SJH can be used as a reliable measure to monitor weightlifting performance in male and female weightlifters. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Differences among Three Measures of Reaction Time Based on Hand Laterality in Individual Sports
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Aim: The study aimed at assessing simple-reaction, recognition and cognitive-reaction times to visual stimuli among student athletes: boxing, gymnastics, taekwondo, judo, karate and wrestling, using computer games tests. (2) Methods: Our study involved 332 students and athletes. We applied three types of
[...] Read more.
(1) Aim: The study aimed at assessing simple-reaction, recognition and cognitive-reaction times to visual stimuli among student athletes: boxing, gymnastics, taekwondo, judo, karate and wrestling, using computer games tests. (2) Methods: Our study involved 332 students and athletes. We applied three types of computer tests to measure the dominant and non-dominant hands: the simple motor reaction time through the Human Benchmark test, the recognition time by the Hit-the-dots and the cognitive reaction time by the Trail making test part B. (3) Results: For dominant and non-dominant hands, better results of individual sports were for: simply reaction time—boxing; recognition reaction time—taekwondo; cognitive reaction—judo. (4) Conclusions: Athletes had better simple reaction with the left hand than with the right hand. Athletes had better recognition and cognitive reaction time with the right hand than with the left hand regardless of the dominant hand. The outcomes of our study indicate that the reaction times of left and right hands were influenced by the hand laterality, the type of applied stimulus, the stress complexity of tests and the type of practiced sport. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Validity of External:Internal Training Load Ratios in Rested and Fatigued Soccer Players
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: To examine the relationship of external:internal training load ratios with fitness and assess the impact of fatigue. Method: Ten soccer players performed a lactate threshold test followed by two soccer simulations (BEAST90mod) 48 h apart. Recovery (TQR) and muscle soreness
[...] Read more.
Purpose: To examine the relationship of external:internal training load ratios with fitness and assess the impact of fatigue. Method: Ten soccer players performed a lactate threshold test followed by two soccer simulations (BEAST90mod) 48 h apart. Recovery (TQR) and muscle soreness (DOMS) was measured before each trial. Internal Training load (TL) (iTRIMP) and external load total distance (TD), high intensity distance (HID), PlayerLoad™ (PL) mean metabolic power (MMP) high metabolic power distance (HP) were collected for each trial and external:internal ratios produced. The relationships between ratios and velocity at lactate threshold (vLT) and velocity at Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation (vOBLA) were examined in both trials along with changes in ratios. Results: Total Quality of Recovery and DOMS showed large changes. There were trivial to large decreases in TL from trial 1 to 2. Moderate increases in ratios for TD:iTRIMP, PL:iTRIMP and MMP:iTRIMP were seen but only small/trivial for HP:iTRIMP and HID:iTRIMP. In rested conditions all ratios show large relationships with vLT and vOBLA. However vLT vs. HID:iTRIMP; PL:iTRIMP; HP:iTRIMP and vOBLA vs. TD:iTRIMP; PL:iTRIMP; MMP:iTRIMP became weaker under fatigue. Conclusions: Acute changes in the ratios have implications forthe use of ratios as fitness measures but also as indicators of fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Football)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Non-Linear Resistance Training Program Induced Power and Strength but Not Linear Sprint Velocity and Agility Gains in Young Soccer Players
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The present study evaluated the effects of resistance training (RT) following a non-linear periodization model in the physical fitness of young soccer athletes. Methods: Young soccer players (n = 23) were allocated into two groups: an RT group (RTG), and the
[...] Read more.
Background: The present study evaluated the effects of resistance training (RT) following a non-linear periodization model in the physical fitness of young soccer athletes. Methods: Young soccer players (n = 23) were allocated into two groups: an RT group (RTG), and the control group (CON). The RTG underwent 15 weeks of non-linear RT periodization in three weekly sessions in addition to their specific soccer training. The CON continued performing the specific soccer training. Before and after the training period, all of the subjects performed one-repetition maximum (RM) tests for speed, agility, and power (vertical and horizontal jump). Results: The RTG obtained significant gains in one-RM tests (before 64.1 ± 5.8 kg, after 79.1 ± 3.3 kg) and power (vertical jump (before 56 ± 2.7 cm, after 61.3 ± 1.7 cm) and horizontal jump (before 184.5 ± 5.5 cm, after 213.6 ± 3.2 cm)). In contrast, the CON group presented a non-significant increase in one-RM tests and horizontal jump, and a significant reduction in vertical jump (before 55.4 ± 2.2 cm, after 51.3 ± 1.5 cm). Neither group presented significant gains in speed (CON: p = 0.27; RTG: p = 0.72) and agility (CON: p = 0.19; RTG: p = 0.58). Conclusion: Our data suggest that non-linear RT should be inserted into the routine of young soccer athletes for improving strength and power without impairing speed and agility. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Sleep Extension on Sleep, Performance, Immunity and Physical Stress in Rugby Players
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i) characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i) characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during a pre-season training programme; (ii) evaluate the efficacy of a sleep extension intervention in improving sleep, markers of physical stress, immune function and performance. (2) Methods: Twenty five highly trained athletes from a professional rugby team (age (mean ± SD) 25 ± 2.7 years; height 1.87 ± 0.07 m; weight 105 ± 12.1 kg) participated in a six week pre-post control-trial intervention study. Variables of sleep, immune function, sympathetic nervous activity, physiological stress and reaction times were measured. (3) Results: Sleep extension resulted in a moderate improvement in sleep quality scores ([mean; ± 90% confidence limits] −24.8%; ± 54.1%) and small to moderate increases in total sleep time (6.3%; ± 6.3%) and time in bed (7.3%; ± 3.6%). In addition, a small decrease in cortisol (−18.7%; ± 26.4%) and mean reaction times (−4.3%; ± 3.1%) was observed following the intervention, compared to the control. (4) Conclusions: Professional rugby players are at risk of poor sleep during pre-season training, with concomitant rises in physical stress. Implementing a sleep extension programme among professional athletes is recommended to improve sleep, with beneficial changes in stress hormone expression and reaction time performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Football)
Open AccessArticle Understanding Adolescent–Parent Interpersonal Relationships in Youth Sports: A Mixed-Methods Study
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 10 May 2018
PDF Full-text (585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in youth sport and adolescent–parent attachment. A mixed-method explanatory sequential study design was applied. In the first phase, 648 adolescent athletes and non-athletes completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in youth sport and adolescent–parent attachment. A mixed-method explanatory sequential study design was applied. In the first phase, 648 adolescent athletes and non-athletes completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised (IPPA–R). In the second phase, 15 adolescent athletes took part in semi-structured interviews. In the first, quantitative phase, three factors were predictors of adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers: trust, communication, and alienation. In the qualitative follow-up, three themes emerged: adolescents’ attachment to the sport; adolescent–parent attachment; adolescents’ thoughts about parents. The analysis of the adolescent–parent interpersonal relationship revealed that athlete adolescents’ relations and attachment to parents compared to non-athlete adolescents are more intensively expressed in all scales: trust, communication and alienation. Interviews with adolescent athletes revealed that parent–adolescent interpersonal relationship and attachment to parents is more important at the early period of sporting life, and becomes less appreciable or unwelcome when children gain sporting experience. The study indicated that the form and degree of parental involvement in children’s sporting activities impacts the effectiveness of parent–athlete interpersonal relationships. The degree and the form of parental involvement in children’s sports chosen by the parents are not always appropriate and encouraging, and they are not always supportive of adolescents’ opinions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after an Extreme Conditioning Competition: A Case Report
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP) competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days
[...] Read more.
This case report describes an instance of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by an extreme conditioning program (ECP) competition. A 35-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and soreness, which began one day after she completed two days of ECPcompetition composed of five workouts. Three days after competition, creatine kinase (CK) was 77,590 U/L accompanied by myalgia and abnormal liver function tests, while renal function was normal and this resulted in a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. A follow-up examination revealed that her serum level of CK was still elevated to 3034 U/L on day 10 and 1257 U/L on day 25 following the ECP competition. The subject reported myalgia even up to 25 days after the ECP competition. Exertional rhabdomyolysis can be observed in ECP athletes following competition and highlights a dangerous condition, which may be increasing in recent years due to the massive expansion of ECP popularity and a growing number of competitions. Future research should investigate the causes of rhabdomyolysis that occur as a result of ECP, especially training methods and/or tasks developed specifically for these competitions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Directional Change Mediates the Physiological Response to High-Intensity Shuttle Running in Professional Soccer Players
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that different frequencies of deceleration and acceleration actions had on the physiological demands in professional soccer players. Thirteen players were monitored via microelectromechanical devices during shuttle running protocols which involved one, three, or
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that different frequencies of deceleration and acceleration actions had on the physiological demands in professional soccer players. Thirteen players were monitored via microelectromechanical devices during shuttle running protocols which involved one, three, or seven 180 degree directional changes. Heart rate exertion (HRE) (1.1 ± 0.7) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (5 ± 1) were significantly higher for the protocol which included seven directional changes when compared to the protocols which included one (HRE 0.5 ± 0.3, ES = 1.1, RPE 3 ± 0, ES = 2.7) or three (HRE 0.5 ± 0.2, ES = 1.1, RPE 3 ± 1, ES = 1.9) directional changes (p < 0.05). The gravitational force (g-force) as measured through accelerometry (ACC) also showed a similar trend when comparing the seven (8628.2 ± 1630.4 g) to the one (5888.6 ± 1159.1 g, ES = 1.9) or three (6526.9 ± 1257.6 g, ES = 1.4) directional change protocols (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that increasing the frequency of decelerations and accelerations at a high intensity running (HIR) speed alters the movement demands and elevates the physiological responses in professional players. This data has implications for the monitoring of physical performance and implementation of training drills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Football)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Relative Age Effect in Swedish Male and Female Tennis Players Born in 1998–2001
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relative age effect (RAE) has been extensively debated and researched in both popular media and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in 1998–2001. The study was conducted in 2015–2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players (
[...] Read more.
The relative age effect (RAE) has been extensively debated and researched in both popular media and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in 1998–2001. The study was conducted in 2015–2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players (n = 1835) registered in the Swedish Tennis Association database from the year 2014. The results show that when the birth dates of the corresponding Swedish population and all the ranked players are compared, they show a moderate RAE; however, the higher up they are in the ranking system, the greater the RAE becomes. Top 10 players display an average of 64.1% being born in the first half of the year. Some gender differences were also found, with a greater proportion of both higher and lower ranked females being born in the first half of the year. In our discussion of the findings we raise several issues that need to be addressed to provide more equal opportunities for all junior players regardless of birth date. Resolving ongoing problems associated with RAE in competitive sports such as tennis is important both in term of prolonged participation in the sport and increased performance. Suggestions made in this article include recognising RAE when designing the format of competitions/tournaments, not using official rankings until the juniors get older, addressing RAE in a “gender sensitive” way, and conducting further in-depth studies in which RAE is understood/examined as being associated with environmental factors. Although these findings show the RAE effect in Swedish tennis players, thus pointing at the need for further consideration in terms of ranking and selection procedures to ensure equal opportunities for player development, the study also concludes by reasserting an emphasis on a holistic approach to player development in which coaches focus on the developmentally appropriate needs and potential of each individual player regardless of their biological age. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Neuromuscular Adaptations Following Training and Protein Supplementation in a Group of Trained Weightlifters
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a recovery supplement compared with a placebo on muscle morphology in trained weightlifters. Vastus lateralis and muscle fiber cross sectional area of type I and type II fibers were compared between groups
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a recovery supplement compared with a placebo on muscle morphology in trained weightlifters. Vastus lateralis and muscle fiber cross sectional area of type I and type II fibers were compared between groups using a series of 2 × 2 (group × time) repeated measure ANOVAs. Both groups on average improved cross-sectional area of the vastus lateralis, type I and type II muscle fibers from pre-to-post but individual response varied within both groups. Greater magnitude of changes in type I and type II muscle fibers were observed for the placebo group but not for vastus lateralis cross sectional area. Additionally, subjects were divided into large and small fiber groups based on combined fiber size at the start of the investigation. These findings indicate that the recovery supplement utilized provided no greater effect compared with a placebo in a 12-week block periodization protocol in trained weightlifters. The primary determinate of fiber size changes in the study was determined to be the initial fiber size of muscle fibers with larger practical changes observed in the small fiber group compared with the large fiber group in type I, II, and ultrasound cross-sectional area (CSA). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Is a Bimodal Force-Time Curve Related to Countermovement Jump Performance?
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A countermovement jump (CMJ) represents one of the most frequently used performance tests for monitoring neuromuscular function in athletes. An often-overlooked feature that may provide some useful diagnostic information is the actual shape of the force-time curve. The aim of this study was
[...] Read more.
A countermovement jump (CMJ) represents one of the most frequently used performance tests for monitoring neuromuscular function in athletes. An often-overlooked feature that may provide some useful diagnostic information is the actual shape of the force-time curve. The aim of this study was therefore to consider how the shape of the force-time curve influences jump performance. Thirty-three male rugby union players performed two CMJs on a force plate, with discrete variables and continuous curve analysis used. The subjects were dichotomized based on shape of the force-time curve during the propulsion phase and by jump height. The differences between the unimodal and bimodal groups were unclear for jump height (ES = 0.28, ±0.58) and reactive strength index-modified (ES = −0.30, ±0.59). A substantial difference between high (40.2 ± 2.9 cm) and low (31.2 ± 3.2 cm) jumpers only existed in the late propulsion phase by 79.0% to 97.0% of the normalized force-time curve. A bimodal force-time curve is not representative of an optimal pattern of performance and simply reflects an inefficient stretch-shortening cycle. The inter-individual variability that exists in braking COM displacement renders temporal phase analysis impractical in cross-sectional type studies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Relationship between Elite Wrestlers’ Leg Strength and Balance Performance, and Injury History
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between leg power and balance performance in elite wrestlers and injury history. In the research group, there are 18 elite freestyle male wrestlers at the ages of 24.27 ± 3.18 years, with a
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between leg power and balance performance in elite wrestlers and injury history. In the research group, there are 18 elite freestyle male wrestlers at the ages of 24.27 ± 3.18 years, with a height of 171.86 ± 5.44 cm and a body weight of 79.27 ± 11.16 kg. Information on the injury history of the athletes’ upper legs for the past year was collected via interviews with the club’s physiotherapist. Laboratory tests to measure performance assessed height, body weight, Y balance and isokinetic leg strength. Data obtained from the study are presented as mean and standard deviation. The test of normality was carried out by the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Pearson Correlation Test was performed for all parameters with normal distribution, and significance level was accepted as p < 0.05. It was found that there is a relationship between the wrestlers’ right leg ratio and hamstring strength and injury history. However, there is no statistically significant relationship between left leg hamstring, quadriceps, ratio, right leg quadriceps, or right and left leg balance performance, and injury history. The resulting data shows that the proportioning between hamstring and quadriceps muscles in freestyle wrestlers’ upper leg strength values is not ideal. This finding provides evidence that injury risk increases with the additional impact of loss of strength. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Literature Review Informing an Operational Guideline for Inertial Sensor Propulsion Measurement in Wheelchair Court Sports
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, teams and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training to find a competitive advantage. Wheelchair court sports (wheelchair rugby, wheelchair tennis, and wheelchair basketball) are no exception, and the
[...] Read more.
With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, teams and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training to find a competitive advantage. Wheelchair court sports (wheelchair rugby, wheelchair tennis, and wheelchair basketball) are no exception, and the use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) within this domain is one innovation researchers have employed to monitor aspects of performance. A systematic literature review was conducted which, after the exclusion criteria was applied, comprised of 16 records. These records highlighted the efficacy of IMUs in terms of device validity and accuracy. IMUs are ubiquitous, low-cost, and non-invasive. The implementation in terms of algorithms and hardware choices was evidenced as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper, through the information collected from the systematic review, proposes a set of implementation guidelines for using IMUs for wheelchair data capture. These guidelines, through the use of flow-charts and data tables, will aid researchers in reducing the barriers to IMU implementation for propulsion assessment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Influence of Fatigued Core Muscles on Head Acceleration during Headers in Soccer
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
PDF Full-text (19241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The core muscles play a central role in stabilizing the head during headers in soccer. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of a fatigued core musculature on the acceleration of the head during jump headers and run headers. Acceleration
[...] Read more.
The core muscles play a central role in stabilizing the head during headers in soccer. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of a fatigued core musculature on the acceleration of the head during jump headers and run headers. Acceleration of the head was measured in a pre-post-design in 68 soccer players (age: 21.5 ± 3.8 years, height: 180.0 ± 13.9 cm, weight: 76.9 ± 8.1 kg). Data were recorded by means of a telemetric 3D acceleration sensor and with a pendulum header. The treatment encompassed two exercises each for the ventral, lateral, and dorsal muscle chains. The acceleration of the head between pre- and post-test was reduced by 0.3 G (p = 0.011) in jump headers and by 0.2 G (p = 0.067) in run headers. An additional analysis of all pretests showed an increased acceleration in run headers when compared to stand headers (p < 0.001) and jump headers (p < 0.001). No differences were found in the sub-group comparisons: semi-professional vs. recreational players, offensive vs. defensive players. Based on the results, we conclude that the acceleration of the head after fatiguing the core muscles does not increase, which stands in contrast to postulated expectations. More tests with accelerated soccer balls are required for a conclusive statement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Football)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Role of Visual Feedback on Power Output During Intermittent Wingate Testing in Ice Hockey Players
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
PDF Full-text (5977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Visual feedback may help elicit peak performance during different types of strength and power testing, but its effect during the anaerobic Wingate test is unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visual feedback on power output
[...] Read more.
Background: Visual feedback may help elicit peak performance during different types of strength and power testing, but its effect during the anaerobic Wingate test is unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visual feedback on power output during a hockey-specific intermittent Wingate test (AnWT6x6) consisting of 6 stages of 6 s intervals with a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Methods: Thirty elite college-aged hockey players performed the AnWT6x6 with either constant (n = 15) visual feedback during all 6 stages (CVF) or restricted (n = 15) visual feedback (RVF) where feedback was shown only during the 2nd through 5th stages. Results: In the first stage, there were moderate-to-large effect sizes for absolute peak power (PP) output and PP relative to body mass and PP relative to fat-free mass. However, the remaining stages (2–6) displayed small or negligible effects. Conclusions: These data indicate that visual feedback may play a role in optimizing power output in a non-fatigued state (1st stage), but likely does not play a role in the presence of extreme neuromuscular fatigue (6th stage) during Wingate testing. To achieve the highest peak power, coaches and researchers could provide visual feedback during Wingate testing, as it may positively influence performance in the early stages of testing, but does not result in residual fatigue or negatively affect performance during subsequent stages. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Test-Retest Reliability of New Generation Power Indices of Wingate All-Out Test
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
PDF Full-text (2315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of
[...] Read more.
Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180.3 ± 6.3 cm). Participants performed two Wingate all-out sessions on two separate days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error measurement (SEM), smallest real differences (SRD) and coefficient of variation (CV) scores were analyzed based on the test and retest data. Reliability results of traditional power indices calculated based on 5-s means such as peak power, average power, power drop, and fatigue index ratio were similar with the previous findings in literature (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 2.8%; SEM ≤ 12.28; SRD% ≤ 7.7%). New generation power indices such as peak power, average power, lowest power, power drop, fatigue index, power decline, maximum speed as rpm, and amount of total energy expenditure demonstrated high reliability (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 4.3%; SEM ≤ 10.36; SRD% ≤ 8.8%). Time to peak power, time at maximum speed, and power at maximum speed showed a moderate level of reliability (ICC ≥ 0.73; CV ≤ 8.9%; SEM ≤ 63.01; SRD% ≤ 22.4%). The results of this study indicate that reliability correlations and SRD% of new generation power and fatigue-related indices are similar with traditional 5-s means. However, new time-related indices are very sensitive and moderately reliable. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Relationships between Linear Speed and Lower-Body Power with Change-of-Direction Speed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and II Women Soccer Athletes
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated relationships that linear speed and lower-body power have on change-of-direction (COD) speed in collegiate women soccer players. Data from two Division I (n = 39) and one Division II (n = 18) schools were analyzed. Subjects were assessed
[...] Read more.
This study investigated relationships that linear speed and lower-body power have on change-of-direction (COD) speed in collegiate women soccer players. Data from two Division I (n = 39) and one Division II (n = 18) schools were analyzed. Subjects were assessed in: power (vertical jump (VJ); jump height, peak anaerobic power measured in watts (PAPw), power-to-body mass ratio (P:BM); linear speed (10-m sprint); and COD speed (modified T-test (MTT), 505, COD deficit). Independent samples T-tests derived significant between-group differences, with effect sizes (d) calculated. Pearson’s correlations determined relationships between COD speed, linear speed, and power, with regression equations calculated. Division I players demonstrated superior 505, COD deficit, VJ height, PAPw, and P:BM (d = 1.09–2.21). Division II players were faster in the MTT (d = 1.51). For all players, the 505 correlated with the 10-m sprint (r = 0.39–0.53) and VJ height (r = −0.65–0.66), while the COD deficit related to the 10-m sprint (r = −0.77–0.82). The regression data supported these results. Division I players were superior in the 505 and COD deficit, and expressed their power in the 180° 505 task. Division II players should enhance lower-body power and the ability to perform 180° direction changes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relative age effect (RAE) in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process.
[...] Read more.
The relative age effect (RAE) in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process. We also aimed to investigate the RAE during the three different selection stages for B13, B14 (boys), and G13, G14 (girls), and gender differences in the RAE. This was achieved by collecting data from everyone who played soccer in Troendelag, and data that would illuminate the RAE during the three stages of selection for the regional teams of the 2015/2016 season. Mann–Whitney U-tests and Chi-square tests were used as statistical methods. The main finding of this study is that, despite the intention to reduce RAE in the selection process according to the criterion that at least 40% of the players should be born in the second half of the year, both the early-born boys and girls are more likely to be selected. The results also show that the RAE occurs gradually, and the longer the players are in the selection process the more prominent it is. This study highlights the importance of being aware of the RAE when selecting young players. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report Relationships between Sprint Ability and Endurance Capacity in Soccer Referees
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between sprint ability and endurance capacity in soccer referees. Twenty-three Spanish officials participated in this study. Each referee undertook, in this order, a 40 m linear straight sprinting test (40 m Sprint) and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between sprint ability and endurance capacity in soccer referees. Twenty-three Spanish officials participated in this study. Each referee undertook, in this order, a 40 m linear straight sprinting test (40 m Sprint) and the Yo–Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (YYIR1) interspersed with a 8 min of self-administered rest. The results in the 40 m Sprint test showed that the time spent by referees was 5.56 ± 0.27 s and achieved a maximum velocity of 31.46 ± 2.85 km·h−1. Furthermore, during the YYIR1 the referees covered 1213.91 ± 432.26 m. The distance covered at YYIR1 was moderately correlated to the velocity achieved in the 40 m Sprint test (r = −0.404, p < 0.05). These results suggest that the ability to reach high speeds is a limiting factor in YYIR1 performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A New Approach to EMG Analysis of Closed-Circuit Movements Such as the Flat Bench Press
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The bench press (BP) is a complex exercise demanding high neuromuscular activity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the patterns of muscular activity of the prime movers on both sides of an elite powerlifter. Methods: A World Champion
[...] Read more.
Background: The bench press (BP) is a complex exercise demanding high neuromuscular activity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the patterns of muscular activity of the prime movers on both sides of an elite powerlifter. Methods: A World Champion (RAW PR 320 kg) participated in the study (age: 34 years; body mass: 103 kg; body height 1.72 m; one-repetition maximum (1 RM) flat bench press: 220 kg). The subject performed one repetition of the flat bench press with: 70% 1 RM (150 kg) and 90% 1 RM (200 kg) in tempos: 2 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase; 6 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase). The activity was recorded for: pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii (lateral and long head). Results: The total sum of peak muscle activity for the four analyzed muscles during both phases of the BP with the different loads and tempos was significantly different, and greater on the right side of the body. Conclusions: The use of lighter loads activate muscle groups in a different activation level, allowing for a greater muscle control. Lifting submaximal and maximal loads causes an activation of most motor units involved in the movement. Experienced athletes have a stabilized neuromuscular pattern for lifting which has different bilateral activity contribution. Full article
Back to Top