Next Article in Journal
Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparison of Aerobic Fitness Testing on a Swim Bench and Treadmill in a Recreational Surfing Cohort: A Pilot Study
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sports 2018, 6(2), 55;

Effects of Reflection to Improve Goal-Directed Self-Talk on Endurance Performance

Department of Science and Technology, University of Suffolk, IP3 0FS Ipswich, UK
Escola Universitària de la Salut i l’Esport, University of Girona, 17190 Salt, Spain
School of Physical & Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y5, Canada
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, John Moores University, L3 5UA Liverpool, UK
Faculty of Education, Health and Well-Being, University of Wolverhampton, WS1 3BD Walsall, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [426 KB, uploaded 13 June 2018]   |  


We investigated the effects of an intervention that encouraged reflection on organic self-talk used during endurance performance. Using an experimental design, we compared the effects of enhancing metacognitive skills by (a) planning and (b) reviewing and evaluating goal-directed self-talk. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion cycling task trials in which we hypothesized that the intervention group would perform significantly better than the control group. Further, we expected a reduction in perceived exertion for a given workload among participants following a self-talk intervention. Thirty-four participants completed a time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer test, after which participants were randomly divided into an intervention and control group. The intervention group performed reflection tasks on performance in the time-to-exhaustion test. Participants completed two further time-to-exhaustion tests. Repeated measures analyses of covariance to test whether the intervention group performed for longer indicated no significant difference in time to exhaustion (p = 0.157). Perceived exertion rates were 2.42% higher in the intervention compared to the control group (p = 0.025). In conclusion, in the intervention group, goal-directed self-talk led to increased sensitisation to perceived exertion, and participants chose to stop exercising at this point rather than repeat implementation of self-talk statements and persist for longer. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-talk; effort; perceived exertion; endurance; psychological skills self-talk; effort; perceived exertion; endurance; psychological skills

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Latinjak, A.T.; de las Heras, B.; Sacot, A.; Fernandez, D.; Robinson, D.; Lane, A.M. Effects of Reflection to Improve Goal-Directed Self-Talk on Endurance Performance. Sports 2018, 6, 55.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sports EISSN 2075-4663 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top