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Sports 2018, 6(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6020055

Effects of Reflection to Improve Goal-Directed Self-Talk on Endurance Performance

1
Department of Science and Technology, University of Suffolk, IP3 0FS Ipswich, UK
2
Escola Universitària de la Salut i l’Esport, University of Girona, 17190 Salt, Spain
3
School of Physical & Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y5, Canada
4
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, John Moores University, L3 5UA Liverpool, UK
5
Faculty of Education, Health and Well-Being, University of Wolverhampton, WS1 3BD Walsall, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract

We investigated the effects of an intervention that encouraged reflection on organic self-talk used during endurance performance. Using an experimental design, we compared the effects of enhancing metacognitive skills by (a) planning and (b) reviewing and evaluating goal-directed self-talk. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion cycling task trials in which we hypothesized that the intervention group would perform significantly better than the control group. Further, we expected a reduction in perceived exertion for a given workload among participants following a self-talk intervention. Thirty-four participants completed a time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer test, after which participants were randomly divided into an intervention and control group. The intervention group performed reflection tasks on performance in the time-to-exhaustion test. Participants completed two further time-to-exhaustion tests. Repeated measures analyses of covariance to test whether the intervention group performed for longer indicated no significant difference in time to exhaustion (p = 0.157). Perceived exertion rates were 2.42% higher in the intervention compared to the control group (p = 0.025). In conclusion, in the intervention group, goal-directed self-talk led to increased sensitisation to perceived exertion, and participants chose to stop exercising at this point rather than repeat implementation of self-talk statements and persist for longer. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-talk; effort; perceived exertion; endurance; psychological skills self-talk; effort; perceived exertion; endurance; psychological skills
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Latinjak, A.T.; de las Heras, B.; Sacot, A.; Fernandez, D.; Robinson, D.; Lane, A.M. Effects of Reflection to Improve Goal-Directed Self-Talk on Endurance Performance. Sports 2018, 6, 55.

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