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Sports 2018, 6(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6020048

Flourishing, Affect, and Relative Autonomy in Adult Exercisers: A Within-Person Basic Psychological Need Fulfillment Perspective

1
Faculty of Sport Science, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100, Turkey
2
Department of Kinesiology & Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
3
Faculty of Sports and Health Education, Lithuania University of Educational Sciences, Vilnius 08106, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract

Flourishing is a construct used to understand human growth. Exercise psychology research is scant concerning this valuable construct. Hence, our purpose was to examine different levels of flourishing and related constructs within a large group of self-reported exercisers from a basic psychological need profile perspective. Participants were 389 female and 387 male adults attending fitness centers. Hierarchical cluster analyses revealed the presence of three clusters with significantly different psychological need profiles across the three basic needs. Separate multivariate analyses of variance were used for the analyses for our demographic variables and psychological variables. Follow-up post hoc tests showed that these clusters differed significantly and were low to moderate in meaningfulness regarding exercise min/week and sports experience. The clusters differed significantly, with moderate to large meaningfulness, in flourishing, positive affect, and relative autonomy. Self-reported exercise and sports participation were not the important cluster characteristics. Our results indicated that self-reported levels of flourishing, positive affect, and autonomy differ even within a large group of self-reported exercisers attending fitness centers that on average exceeded the weekly-recommended number of moderate-to-vigorous activity minutes. Thus, our results suggest the importance of fitness centers in meeting their participants’ three basic needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Self-Determination Theory; cluster analysis; human growth; exercise autonomy; motivation; exercise adherence Self-Determination Theory; cluster analysis; human growth; exercise autonomy; motivation; exercise adherence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kazak Çetinkalp, Z.; Lochbaum, M. Flourishing, Affect, and Relative Autonomy in Adult Exercisers: A Within-Person Basic Psychological Need Fulfillment Perspective. Sports 2018, 6, 48.

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