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Insects, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Resistance Management for Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in Florida
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check.
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The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayma, is one of the most important pests in citrus production. The objective of this study was to evaluate D. citri resistance management with three insecticide rotations and compare them with no rotation and an untreated check. The different insecticides (modes of action) tested were: dimethoate, imidacloprid, diflubenzuron, abamectin 3% + thiamethoxam 13.9%, and fenpropathrin. Eggs, nymph, and adult psyllids were counted weekly. Five insecticide applications were made in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility was determined by direct comparison with a laboratory susceptible population and field populations before and after all treatments were applied. Rankings of eggs, nymphs, and adults counted in treated plots were significantly lower than in the untreated control plots after each application. Initially, the resistance ratio (RR50) for each rotation model, as compared with laboratory susceptible strain and the field population before application, was less than 5.76 and 4.31, respectively. However, after five applications with dimethoate, the RR50 using the laboratory and pre-treatment field populations was 42.34 and 34.74, respectively. Our results indicate that effectively rotating modes of action can delay and/or prevent development of insecticide resistance in populations of D. citri. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that
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Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’); (2) natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on
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The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November–December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44%) and palmitic acid (28%) were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6%) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21%) suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896–1035 mg/100 g), potassium (779–816 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (652–685 mg/100 g) were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217–220 mg/100 g), zinc (14.2–14.6 mg/100 g), manganese (7.4–8.3 mg/100 g) and copper (1.66 mg/100 g) suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Insects—Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security)
Open AccessCommunication Effects of Wildflower Strips and an Adjacent Forest on Aphids and Their Natural Enemies in a Pea Field
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the
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Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest) and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations. The effect of the habitats on aphids was also evaluated. The habitats but not aphid density significantly affected hoverfly larvae, which were more abundant adjacent to wildflower strips than to the forest. The contrary was observed for ladybeetle adults, which were positively related with aphids but not affected by the adjacent habitats. The abundance of mummies and the parasitism rate were significantly affected by both the habitats and aphid density. They were both significantly enhanced adjacent to wildflower strips compared to the forest, but the total parasitism rate was low (<1%), questioning whether parasitoids could significantly control aphids on the pea crop. As for the aphids, their abundance was not significantly affected by the adjacent habitats. These results are discussed with respect to the potential of these habitats to provide overwintering sites and food resources for natural enemies, and thereby enhance conservation biological control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habitat Management in Agroecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Lipase Activity in the Larval Midgut of Rhynchophorus palmarum: Biochemical Characterization and the Effects of Reducing Agents
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis
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Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis of complex lipids. The South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum is one of the most important pests on commercial palm plantations. However, there are few studies about lipid digestion for this insect. In this work, we have described the biochemical characterization of the lipase activity in the posterior midgut of the R. palmarum palm weevil. Lipase activity was highest between the temperatures of 37 °C and 45 °C and at pH 6.5. Lipase activity was also sensitive to variations in salt and calcium concentrations. Lipases have been described structurally as enzymes with the Ser-His-Asp Catalytic Triad, containing an active serine. The serine protease inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride) inhibited the lipases from R. palmarum, demonstrating the importance of a serine residue for this activity. The ability of the lipases to hydrolyze p-Nitrophenyl esters with different chain lengths has revealed the activities of a broad range of substrates. The lipase activities of R. palmarum increased in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), while in the presence of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), activities were drastically reduced. To our knowledge, this study has provided the first information about lipase activity in the R. palmarum palm weevil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae) Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of
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The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound) and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g). Measures of colony decline—mound repair capability and internal core temperature—did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring–summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring–summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Geometric Analysis of the Regulation of Inorganic Nutrient Intake by the Subterranean Termite Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Most studies on termite food selection have focused on a single nutrient per choice, however, termites, like all animals, must balance multiple nutrients in their diet. While most studies that use multi-nutrient approaches focus on macromolecules, the ability to balance the intake of
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Most studies on termite food selection have focused on a single nutrient per choice, however, termites, like all animals, must balance multiple nutrients in their diet. While most studies that use multi-nutrient approaches focus on macromolecules, the ability to balance the intake of inorganic nutrients is also vital to organisms. In this study, we used the geometric framework to test the effects of multiple inorganic nutrients on termite feeding. We presented the subsets of Reticulitermes flavipes colonies with food enriched with varying in levels of KCl, MgSO4, and FePO4. Each trial varied two of the three nutrients while the third nutrient was kept constant. The amount of food consumed was measured over two weeks. The termites’ feeding patterns during the study suggested that they fed until they reached a limit for MgSO4. This result suggests that the termites were using the rule of compromise such that the termites would over consume KCl or FePO4 in order to avoid overeating MgSO4. Thus, the termite colonies are able to regulate the intake of inorganic nutrients, and by doing so, adjust their intake from multiple resources in order to maintain an intake target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From
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Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication The Spread of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Coexistence with Helicoverpa zea in Southeastern Brazil
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world’s most destructive crop pests, was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Within a few months, this polyphagous insect had spread over the Northeast and Central-West of Brazil, causing great agricultural losses. With several reports of populations
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Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world’s most destructive crop pests, was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Within a few months, this polyphagous insect had spread over the Northeast and Central-West of Brazil, causing great agricultural losses. With several reports of populations resistant to pesticides and Bt crops around the world, there is great concern about the spread of this pest in Brazil. There is confusion about the actual distribution of this species due to the high morphological similarity with the native corn earworm Helicoverpa zea, which may also coexist with H. armigera in the field. Our aims here were (i) to confirm its presence in the State of Minas Gerais, one of the most important agricultural regions in the country; and (ii) to assess the co-occurrence of this pest with the congeneric corn earworm H. zea. Using molecular screening, we confirmed the presence of H. armigera in Bt-crops of soybean and cotton, and non-Bt-crops of soybean, cotton and maize. Mixed infestations of H. armigera with H. zea were found in non-Bt maize (Viçosa, Southeastern Minas Gerais). These results highlight the need for adequate control strategies for H. armigera in Brazil, to deal with its polyphagous feeding habits, high dispersal capacity and possible risks of hybridization with congeneric species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Monitoring and Trapping in Agricultural Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperShort Note Comparison of Efficiency of BG-Sentinel Traps Baited with Mice, Mouse-Litter, and CO2 Lures for Field Sampling of Male and Female Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Determining the abundance and distribution of male mosquitoes in the wild and establishing species seasonality in candidate pilot sites is of particular interest with respect to the use of the sterile-male technique. With the knowledge that using mice as bait in BG-Sentinel traps
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Determining the abundance and distribution of male mosquitoes in the wild and establishing species seasonality in candidate pilot sites is of particular interest with respect to the use of the sterile-male technique. With the knowledge that using mice as bait in BG-Sentinel traps effectively enhances Aedes albopictus male and female trapping success, the present study was designed to determine whether attractants derived from mouse odour blend could be a viable substitute for live mice to lure Ae. albopictus mosquitoes into traps. The effects of baiting BG-Sentinel traps with mice, carbon dioxide (CO2), and attractants derived from litter mouse odours (mouse litter (ML)) and a mouse odour blend (MOB) on the efficiency of trapping Ae. albopictus males and females were tested using a Latin square design. The BG-Sentinel trap baited with CO2 + ML caught a significantly larger number of mosquitoes compared to traps baited with mice only. The BG-Sentinel traps containing only CO2 or CO2 + MOB, however, did not catch significantly more mosquitoes compared to the other traps. The proportions of males caught in the BG-Sentinel traps did not differ significantly between the respective attractants. The results from this study confirm that CO2 bait is efficient to provide a reliable estimation method for Ae. albopictus adult male abundance in the wild, and suggest that mouse litter baits in combination with CO2 could be used to enhance Aedes trapping success in BG-Sentinel traps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Locomotion Inhibition of Cimex lectularius L. Following Topical, Sublethal Dose Application of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Lufenuron
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
To date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. Acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. Combined acute
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To date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. Acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. Combined acute and sublethal effects were used to calculate effective doses. The dose that was effective against 50% of Harlan strain bed bugs was 0.0081% (w/v), and was much higher against Bradenton strain bed bugs (1.11% w/v). Sublethal doses were chosen to determine the effect that leg abnormalities had on pulling force. Both Harlan and Bradenton strain bed bugs had significantly lower locomotion ability (p < 0.0001) following topical application of lufenuron. The observed sublethal effects that limit locomotion could prevent bed bugs from moving within a domicile and taking a blood meal, subsequently reducing a bed bug population over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle Insecticides for Suppression of Nylanderia fulva
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) is an invasive ant that is a serious pest in the southern United States. Pest control operators and homeowners are challenged to manage pest populations below acceptable thresholds. Contact and bait insecticides are key components of an Integrated Pest Management
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Nylanderia fulva (Mayr) is an invasive ant that is a serious pest in the southern United States. Pest control operators and homeowners are challenged to manage pest populations below acceptable thresholds. Contact and bait insecticides are key components of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy, however, little is known about their efficacy. In repellency and efficacy bioassays, N. fulva were not completely repelled by any insecticide tested, although fewer ants crossed a surface treated with Temprid®. Few insecticides provided rapid control. Termidor® and Temprid® were the best performing with mean mortality of 100% in 13.4 and 19.0 days, respectively. In no-choice bait acceptance studies, it was shown that N. fulva generally had greater acceptance of carbohydrate-based ant baits (Advion®, InTiceTM (gel), and InTiceTM (granular)). However, mortality was low for the InTiceTM baits in a 7-day bioassay. Maxforce® Ant Killer Bait Gel and Advance® 375A in the spring and Maxforce® Complete in the summer and fall required the fewest days to reach 100% mortality. Bait active ingredients that resulted in the highest mortality were hydramethylnon and fipronil. These data on the efficacy of commercially available contact and bait insecticides provide valuable information to manage this invasive pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole in Controlling Structural Infestations of the Eastern Subterranean Termite in the USA
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites
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Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset® (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony’s footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0–4) and North Carolina (0–5) as compared to 0–1 in Ohio, the most northern state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Genitalic Differentiations in Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Gueneé) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Associated with Solanaceae Crops in Ecuador
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) is an oligophagous species of plants in the Solanaceae family that has a broad geographical distribution in the tropical zones of South America. It is the most important insect pest of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lamarck), a crop grown in
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Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) is an oligophagous species of plants in the Solanaceae family that has a broad geographical distribution in the tropical zones of South America. It is the most important insect pest of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lamarck), a crop grown in threatened areas of the tropical old-growth forest in Ecuador. In this study, two host-specific populations of N. elegantalis were collected from infested fruit of naranjilla and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cavanilles) in different locations. Sexually virgin adult insects (93 females and 103 males) were dissected to extract their genitalia to measure 12 morphological variables in females and six in males, resulting in six and four informative variables respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance, it was found that the Solanaceous host was the main factor differentiating the area measurements of the seventh abdominal segment and ostium bursae in female genitalia, and cornuti length in male genitalia. Principal components generated with these measurements were employed in a logistic regression model for the classification of the Solanaceous host. Female genitalia of individuals from S. betaceum showed significantly larger ostium bursae relative to female genitalia from S. quitoense. For males, individuals collected from S. betaceum showed longer cornuti length than samples collected from S. quitoense. The results suggest genotypic differentiation according to the Solanaceous host or phenotypic plasticity in N. elegantalis. Further molecular and bio-geographical studies are needed to properly differentiate N. elegantalis populations that would help in the control of this pest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Short-Range Responses of the Kissing Bug Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to Carbon Dioxide, Moisture, and Artificial Light
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
The hematophagous bug Triatoma rubida is a species of kissing bug that has been marked as a potential vector for the transmission of Chagas disease in the Southern United States and Northern Mexico. However, information on the distribution of T. rubida in these
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The hematophagous bug Triatoma rubida is a species of kissing bug that has been marked as a potential vector for the transmission of Chagas disease in the Southern United States and Northern Mexico. However, information on the distribution of T. rubida in these areas is limited. Vector monitoring is crucial to assess disease risk, so effective trapping systems are required. Kissing bugs utilize extrinsic cues to guide host-seeking, aggregation, and dispersal behaviors. These cues have been recognized as high-value targets for exploitation by trapping systems. A modern video-tracking system was used with a four-port olfactometer system to quantitatively assess the behavioral response of T. rubida to cues of known significance. Also, response of T. rubida adults to seven wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LED) in paired-choice pitfall was evaluated. Behavioral data gathered from these experiments indicate that T. rubida nymphs orient preferentially to airstreams at either 1600 or 3200 ppm carbon dioxide and prefer relative humidity levels of about 30%, while adults are most attracted to 470 nm light. These data may serve to help design an effective trapping system for T. rubida monitoring. Investigations described here also demonstrate the experimental power of combining an olfactometer with a video-tracking system for studying insect behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Preliminary Investigation of the Interactions between the Brood Parasite Chalcoela iphitalis and Its Polistine Wasp Hosts
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
The life history of Chalcoela iphitalis—a common brood parasite of social wasps—has been described in previous literature, but critical information regarding oviposition behavior and possible differential host parasitism remain cryptic. Here we report on infestation levels of this moth in field populations
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The life history of Chalcoela iphitalis—a common brood parasite of social wasps—has been described in previous literature, but critical information regarding oviposition behavior and possible differential host parasitism remain cryptic. Here we report on infestation levels of this moth in field populations of paper wasps in Polistes and Mischocyttarus, as well as the oviposition behavior of the moths under a laboratory setting. We found evidence for differential parasitism between paper wasp genera in the field, with almost 50% nest infestation in P. bellicosus and no occurrences of moth infestation in M. mexicanus. Laboratory results revealed that oviposition occurs only at night and is stimulated by contact with the wasp nest or adult wasps. In this setting, eggs were laid largely on the substrate above or adjacent to the host nest, but not on the nest itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Wavelength and Polarization Affect Phototaxis of the Asian Citrus Psyllid
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a primary pest of citrus due to its status as a vector of the citrus disease, huanglongbing. We evaluated the effects of light of specific wavelength and polarization on phototactic behavior of D.
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The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a primary pest of citrus due to its status as a vector of the citrus disease, huanglongbing. We evaluated the effects of light of specific wavelength and polarization on phototactic behavior of D. citri using a horizontal bioassay arena. Wavelength-associated positive phototaxis was associated with short wavelength UV (350–405 nm) targets whereas little or no responses were seen in longer wavelength targets in the visible spectrum from green to orange (500–620 nm). Distance walked towards the visual target was greater for UV/blue wavelengths (350–430 nm) than for longer wavelengths. Distances walked towards 365 nm light were greater than to white light, and distances travelled to green, yellow and orange light were similar to those in darkness. A reduced light intensity decreased responses to white and UV (365 nm) light. Polarized light was discriminated and D. citri travelled greater distance in response to white vertically polarized light than to horizontally polarized or unpolarized light of equal intensity. Responses to polarized 405 nm light were greater than to unpolarized light, although without an effect of polarization plane. For 500 nm light, there was no difference between responses to polarized or unpolarized light. There was no effect of age on responses to 405 nm light although 1 day old psyllids travelled faster in the presence of 500 nm green compared to 4–7 day old psyllids. Movement in response to UV and relative stasis in response to longer wavelength light is consistent with observed behaviors of settling on foliage for feeding and dispersing out of the canopy when flush needed for reproduction is scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Minimal Pruning and Reduced Plant Protection Promote Predatory Mites in Grapevine
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Improving natural pest control by promoting high densities of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective way to prevent damage by pest mites (e.g., Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) and other arthropod taxa that can cause serious damage to vineyards. Here, we investigate the influence of
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Improving natural pest control by promoting high densities of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective way to prevent damage by pest mites (e.g., Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) and other arthropod taxa that can cause serious damage to vineyards. Here, we investigate the influence of innovative management on predatory mite densities. We compare (i) full versus reduced fungicide applications and (ii) minimal pruning versus a traditional trellis pruning system in four fungus-resistant grapevine varieties. As predatory mites also feed on fungus mycelium, we assessed fungal infection of grapevine leaves in the experimental vineyard. Predatory mites were significantly more abundant in both minimal pruning and under reduced plant protection. Increases in predatory mites appeared to be independent of fungal infection, suggesting mostly direct effects of reduced fungicides and minimal pruning. In contrast to predatory mites, pest mites did not increase under innovative management. Thus, conditions for natural pest control are improved in fungus-resistant grapevines and under minimal pruning, which adds to other advantages such as environmental safety and reduced production cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessCommunication Dietary Supplementation of Honey Bee Larvae with Arginine and Abscisic Acid Enhances Nitric Oxide and Granulocyte Immune Responses after Trauma
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
Many biotic and abiotic stressors impact bees’ health, acting as immunosupressors and contribute to colony losses. Thus, the importance of studying the immune response of honey bees is central to develop new strategies aiming to enhance bees’ fitness to confront the threats affecting
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Many biotic and abiotic stressors impact bees’ health, acting as immunosupressors and contribute to colony losses. Thus, the importance of studying the immune response of honey bees is central to develop new strategies aiming to enhance bees’ fitness to confront the threats affecting them. If a pathogen breaches the physical and chemical barriers, honey bees can protect themselves from infection with cellular and humoral immune responses which represent a second line of defense. Through a series of correlative studies we have previously reported that abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO) share roles in the same immune defenses of Apis mellifera (A. mellifera). Here we show results supporting that the supplementation of bee larvae’s diet reared in vitro with l-Arginine (precursor of NO) or ABA enhanced the immune activation of the granulocytes in response to wounding and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Behavioral Responses of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, to Insecticide Dusts
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Bed bugs have reemerged recently as a serious and growing problem not only in North America but in many parts of the world. These insects have become the most challenging pest to control in urban environments. Residual insecticides are the most common methods
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Bed bugs have reemerged recently as a serious and growing problem not only in North America but in many parts of the world. These insects have become the most challenging pest to control in urban environments. Residual insecticides are the most common methods used for bed bug control; however, insecticide resistance limits the efficacy of treatments. Desiccant dusts have emerged as a good option to provide a better residual effect for bed bug control. Several studies have focused on determining the efficacy of dust-based insecticides against bed bugs. However, behavioral responses of bed bugs to insecticide dusts could influence their efficacy. The behavioral responses of bed bugs to six insecticide dusts commonly used in the United States were evaluated with an advanced video tracking technique (Ethovision). Bed bugs took longer to make first contact with areas treated with the diatomaceous earth (DE)-based products MotherEarth D and Alpine than pyrethroid, pyrethrins or silica gel based products, DeltaDust, Tempo 1% Dust and CimeXa, respectively. Lower visitation rates of bed bugs were recorded for areas treated with MotherEarth D, Alpine and CimeXa than that of DeltaDust, Tempo 1% Dust, and Tri-Die Silica + Pyrethrum Dust. Bed bugs spent less time in areas treated with Tri-Die Dust, CimeXa, Alpine, and MotherEarth D than DeltaDust and Tempo 1% Dust, and they exhibited a reduction in locomotor parameters when crawling on areas treated with CimeXa and Alpine. The implications of these responses to bed bug control are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Oxalic Acid on Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony.
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Abstract: Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony. After oral application, bee mortality occurred at relatively low concentrations (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) 50 µg/bee; Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 75 µg/bee) compared to the dermal treatment (NOAEL 212.5 µg/bee; LOAEL 250 µg/bee). The dosage used in regular treatment via dermal application (circa 175 µg/bee) is below the LOAEL, referring to mortality derived in the laboratory. However, the treatment with oxalic acid dihydrate caused sublethal effects: This could be demonstrated in an increased responsiveness to water, decreased longevity and a reduction in pH-values in the digestive system and the hemolymph. The shift towards stronger acidity after treatment confirms that damage to the epithelial tissue and organs is likely to be caused by hyperacidity. The distribution of oxalic acid dihydrate within a colony was shown by macro-computed tomography; it was rapid and consistent. The increased density of the individual bee was continuous for at least 14 days after the treatment indicating the presence of oxalic acid dihydrate in the hive even long after a treatment. Full article
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Open AccessReview In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground
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The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habitat Management in Agroecosystems)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Diversity and Sampling Methodology in a Midwestern USA Deciduous Forest
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Forests provide potentially important bee habitat, but little research has been done on forest bee diversity and the relative effectiveness of bee sampling methods in this environment. Bee diversity and sampling methodology were studied in an Illinois, USA upland oak-hickory forest using elevated
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Forests provide potentially important bee habitat, but little research has been done on forest bee diversity and the relative effectiveness of bee sampling methods in this environment. Bee diversity and sampling methodology were studied in an Illinois, USA upland oak-hickory forest using elevated and ground-level pan traps, malaise traps, and vane traps. 854 bees and 55 bee species were collected. Elevated pan traps collected the greatest number of bees (473), but ground-level pan traps collected greater species diversity (based on Simpson’s diversity index) than did elevated pan traps. Elevated and ground-level pan traps collected the greatest bee species richness, with 43 and 39 species, respectively. An estimated sample size increase of over 18-fold would be required to approach minimum asymptotic richness using ground-level pan traps. Among pan trap colors/elevations, elevated yellow pan traps collected the greatest number of bees (266) but the lowest diversity. Malaise traps were relatively ineffective, collecting only 17 bees. Vane traps collected relatively low species richness (14 species), and Chao1 and abundance coverage estimators suggested that minimum asymptotic species richness was approached for that method. Bee species composition differed significantly between elevated pan traps, ground-level pan traps, and vane traps. Indicator species were significantly associated with each of these trap types, as well as with particular pan trap colors/elevations. These results indicate that Midwestern deciduous forests provide important bee habitat, and that the performance of common bee sampling methods varies substantially in this environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oviposition, Life Cycle, and Longevity of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Studies related to the demography of individual members from ant colonies have received little attention, although they are the basis to understanding the population dynamics of colonies. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the queen oviposition rate and the duration
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Studies related to the demography of individual members from ant colonies have received little attention, although they are the basis to understanding the population dynamics of colonies. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the queen oviposition rate and the duration of the life cycle and longevity of Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus workers. To determine the oviposition rate, queens from three colonies were individually placed in plastic containers, and the eggs laid were quantified over a 96 h period. The development of the immature forms was observed every 24 h, with which the duration of each stage of development was determined. To verify the longevity of workers, the newly emerged adults were marked and daily observations were made. According to the results, there is variation in the development time of immature forms within the colony itself and between colonies. In addition, the number of eggs deposited was also inconstant in the three colonies, ranging from 5 to 119 eggs per day, while the longevity of workers varied from 3 to 7 months. Occasionally, it was found that the workers feed on the eggs produced by the queen; besides, there was a disappearance of larvae and pupae during the research, indicating a possibility of the practice of cannibalism in this species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding Barriers to Participation in Cost-Share Programs For Pollinator Conservation by Wisconsin (USA) Cranberry Growers
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation
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The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees. We conducted a survey of cranberry growers (n = 250) regarding farming practices, pollinators, and conservation. Although only 10% of growers were aware of federal pollinator cost-share programs, one third of them were managing habitat for pollinators without federal aid. Once informed of the programs, 50% of growers expressed interest in participating. Fifty-seven percent of growers manage habitat for other wildlife, although none receive cost-share funding to do so. Participation in cost-share programs could benefit from outreach activities that promote the programs, a reduction of bureaucratic hurdles to participate, and technical support for growers on how to manage habitat for wild bees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Habitat Management in Agroecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in
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Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Pest Control in Orchards and Vineyards)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Host Specificity of Epiplema albida: A Potential Biological Control Agent for Sri Lankan Privet in the Mascarene Islands
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract
Epiplema albida (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae, Epipleminae) from Sri Lanka, was studied to assess its safety for use as a biological control agent for Sri Lankan privet, Ligustrum robustum subsp. walkeri (Oleaceae) in La Réunion and other Mascarene Islands. Larval no-choice feeding tests using
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Epiplema albida (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Uraniidae, Epipleminae) from Sri Lanka, was studied to assess its safety for use as a biological control agent for Sri Lankan privet, Ligustrum robustum subsp. walkeri (Oleaceae) in La Réunion and other Mascarene Islands. Larval no-choice feeding tests using newly hatched larvae, larval development tests, and multiple choice oviposition tests were used. Adult females of E. albida are shown to have highly selective oviposition behaviour and the species is physiologically restricted to very few hosts for feeding and development. The risk to key test plants in La Réunion is minimal, so this species can be considered for use as a biological control agent there, but would need further evaluation for potential use elsewhere. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Testing a Threshold-Based Bed Bug Management Approach in Apartment Buildings
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
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Abstract
We tested a threshold-based bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. Thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. These apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size
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We tested a threshold-based bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. Thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. These apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size and initial bed bug count, obtained through a combination of visual inspection and bed bug monitors: I- Non-chemical only in apartments with 1–12 bed bug count, II- Chemical control only in apartments with 1–12 bed bug count, III- Non-chemical and chemical control in apartments with >12 bed bug count, and IV- Chemical control only in apartments with ≥11 bed bug count. All apartments were monitored or treated once every two weeks for a maximum of 28 wk. Treatment I eliminated bed bugs in a similar amount of time to treatment II. Time to eliminate bed bugs was similar between treatment III and IV but required significantly less insecticide spray in treatment III than that in treatment IV. A threshold-based management approach (non-chemical only or non-chemical and chemical) can eliminate bed bugs in a similar amount of time, using little to no pesticide compared to a chemical only approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Bionomics of the Cocoa Mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus (Morrison) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Mangosteen Fruit and Three Alternative Hosts
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
The cocoa mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus Morrison (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is known to attack mangosteen, an important fruit export commodity for Indonesia. The mealybug is polyphagous, so alternative host plants can serve as a source of nourishment. This study aimed to record the bionomics of
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The cocoa mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus Morrison (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is known to attack mangosteen, an important fruit export commodity for Indonesia. The mealybug is polyphagous, so alternative host plants can serve as a source of nourishment. This study aimed to record the bionomics of E. hispidus on mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and three alternative hosts, kabocha squash (Cucurbita maxima L.), soursop (Annona muricata, L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.). First-instar nymphs of the E. hispidus were reared at room temperature on mangosteen, kabocha, soursop, and guava fruits until they developed into adults and produced nymphs. Female E. hispidus go through three instar stages before adulthood. The species reproduces by deuterotokous parthenogenesis. Exallomochlus hispidus successfully developed and reproduced on all four hosts. The shortest life cycle of the mealybug occurred on kabocha (about 32.4 days) and the longest was on guava (about 38.3 days). The highest fecundity was found on kabocha (about 100 nymphs/female) and the lowest on mangosteen (about 46 nymphs/female). The shortest oviposition period was 10 days on mangosteen and the longest, 10 days, on guava. These findings could be helpful in controlling E. hispidus populations in orchards. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Isogroup Selection to Optimize Biocontrol Increases Cannibalism in Omnivorous (Zoophytophagous) Bugs
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
Zoophytophagous insects can substitute animals for plant resources when prey is scarce. Many arthropods feed on conspecifics to survive in these conditions. An individual’s tendency for cannibalism may depend on its genotype along with its diet specialization, in interaction with the availability of
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Zoophytophagous insects can substitute animals for plant resources when prey is scarce. Many arthropods feed on conspecifics to survive in these conditions. An individual’s tendency for cannibalism may depend on its genotype along with its diet specialization, in interaction with the availability of alternative food resources. We compared two isogroup lines of the zoophytophagous mullein bug, either specialized on animal or on plant diets, that were generated to improve biocontrol. We predicted that: (1) bugs from the prey-specialized line would show higher levels of cannibalism than bugs from the pollen-specialized line, and (2) both lines would decrease cannibalism levels in the presence of their preferred resource. Under laboratory conditions, large nymphal instars had 24 hours to feed on smaller instars, in the absence of additional resources, or with either spider mites or pollen present. Cannibalism was reduced by the availability of both prey and pollen, although prey had a lower effect than pollen. The intensity of cannibalism was always higher in the prey-specialized line than in the pollen-specialized line, regardless of the availability of supplemented resources. The pollen-specialized line had decreased cannibalism levels only when pollen was available. These results indicate that cannibalism is a potentially regulating force in the prey-specialized line, but not in the pollen-specialized line. Full article
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