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Insects 2017, 8(1), 25; doi:10.3390/insects8010025

Phylogenetic Relationships among Whiteflies in the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Species Complex from Major Cassava Growing Areas in Kenya

1
Department of Biochemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi P.O. Box 62000-00200, Kenya
2
Department of Horticulture, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi P.O. Box 62000-00200, Kenya
3
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
4
School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary L. Cornelius
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Insect Species)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4373 KB, uploaded 28 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) are major insect pests that affect many crops such as cassava, tomato, beans, cotton, cucurbits, potato, sweet potato, and ornamental crops. Bemisia tabaci transmits viral diseases, namely cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases, which are the main constraints to cassava production, causing huge losses to many small-scale farmers. The aim of this work was to determine the phylogenetic relationships among Bemisia tabaci species in major cassava growing areas of Kenya. Surveys were carried out between 2013 and 2015 in major cassava growing areas (Western, Nyanza, Eastern, and Coast regions), for cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI-DNA) was used to determine the genetic diversity of B. tabaci. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using Bayesian methods to understand the genetic diversity across the study regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two B. tabaci species present in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa 1 and 2 comprising five distinct clades (A–E) with percent sequence similarity ranging from 97.7 % to 99.5%. Clades B, C, D, and E are predominantly distributed in the Western and Nyanza regions of Kenya whereas clade B is dominantly found along the coast, the eastern region, and parts of Nyanza. Our B. tabaci clade A groups with sub-Saharan Africa 2-(SSA2) recorded a percent sequence similarity of 99.5%. In this study, we also report the identification of SSA2 after a 15 year absence in Kenya. The SSA2 species associated with CMD has been found in the Western region of Kenya bordering Uganda. More information is needed to determine if these species are differentially involved in the epidemiology of the cassava viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bemisia tabaci; genetic diversity; mtCOI; cassava; Kenya; cassava brown streak disease (CBSD); cassava mosaic disease (CMD) Bemisia tabaci; genetic diversity; mtCOI; cassava; Kenya; cassava brown streak disease (CBSD); cassava mosaic disease (CMD)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Manani, D.M.; Ateka, E.M.; Nyanjom, S.R.G.; Boykin, L.M. Phylogenetic Relationships among Whiteflies in the Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Species Complex from Major Cassava Growing Areas in Kenya. Insects 2017, 8, 25.

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