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Insects 2013, 4(1), 71-89; doi:10.3390/insects4010071
Article

The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

1,* , 2
 and 3
Received: 17 September 2012; in revised form: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee)
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Abstract: The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine® is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.
Keywords: deformed wing virus; Black queen cell virus; chlorpyrifos; boscalid; pyraclostrobin deformed wing virus; Black queen cell virus; chlorpyrifos; boscalid; pyraclostrobin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

DeGrandi-Hoffman, G.; Chen, Y.; Simonds, R. The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.). Insects 2013, 4, 71-89.

AMA Style

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Chen Y, Simonds R. The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.). Insects. 2013; 4(1):71-89.

Chicago/Turabian Style

DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Simonds, Roger. 2013. "The Effects of Pesticides on Queen Rearing and Virus Titers in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)." Insects 4, no. 1: 71-89.

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