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Water 2017, 9(6), 394; doi:10.3390/w9060394

Vulnerability of Buildings on Coastal Dikes due to Wave Overtopping

Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Department of Structural Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Flanders Hydraulic Research, Berchemlei 115, 2140 Antwerp, Belgium
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 904, 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bruno Merz
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017


The vulnerability of buildings on coastal dikes due to overtopping wave impacts is difficult to assess. A method is developed in this paper to quantify the vulnerability of masonry buildings on a coastal dike exposed to wave overtopping. Using previous studies, the accidental loads due to the extreme wave impacts are characterized. Using the approach from Eurocode 6, the strength of masonry buildings under these loads is assessed. Results from a case study in Belgium show that masonry buildings located 10–15 m away from the seafront would suffer from localized damage, such as windows being broken under a 1000 year storm. The building would collapse under a 10,000-year storm. The method can be used to assess the safety of existing buildings on coastal dikes and to design new buildings. View Full-Text
Keywords: vulnerability; wave overtopping; coastal flood; building; dike vulnerability; wave overtopping; coastal flood; building; dike

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X.; Jonkman, S.N.; Pasterkamp, S.; Suzuki, T.; Altomare, C. Vulnerability of Buildings on Coastal Dikes due to Wave Overtopping. Water 2017, 9, 394.

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