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Water 2017, 9(2), 137; doi:10.3390/w9020137

Tracer Experiments and Hydraulic Performance Improvements in a Treatment Pond

1
Department of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
2
Wet Ecosystem Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Department 2715, North Dakota State University (NDSU), P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108‐6050, USA
3
Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Sample
Received: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Wetlands for Nutrient Removal)
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Abstract

The treatment efficiency of a wetland constructed for nutrient removal depends strongly on the flow patterns and residence times of the wetland. In this study, a tracer experiment was performed to estimate the residence time distribution and the hydraulic efficiency of a treatment pond with shallow and deep‐water areas. Rhodamine WT experiments revealed a non‐uniform flow pattern in the deep‐water area and an overall poor hydraulic efficiency in the wetland. To improve flow uniformity and hydraulic efficiency, several design options for different inlet-outlet configurations, flow rates, water depths, and emergent baffle additions were considered. The effects on hydraulic performance were investigated through mathematical model simulations. The results revealed that increasing the flow rate and decreasing the water depth slightly improved the hydraulic performance, whereas changing the positions of the inlet and outlet produced inconsistent effects. The most effective improvement involved installing emergent baffles, with the number of baffles presenting the largest positive effect, followed by the width and length of the baffles. Long and thin baffles resulted in a uniform flow velocity field, a meandering flow path, and greater residence times and effective volume ratios. The installation of two baffles increased the hydraulic efficiency to 1.00, indicating excellent hydraulic performance. The thin baffles occupied approximately 3.7%-6.3% of the deep‐water area and 1.9%-3.2% of the entire pond, indicating the potential for their practical application in limited land use regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: pond; rhodamine WT; mathematical modeling; flow uniformity; hydraulic performance pond; rhodamine WT; mathematical modeling; flow uniformity; hydraulic performance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shih, S.; Zeng, Y.; Lee, H.; Otte, M.L.; Fang, W. Tracer Experiments and Hydraulic Performance Improvements in a Treatment Pond. Water 2017, 9, 137.

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