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Water 2016, 8(3), 78; doi:10.3390/w8030078

Overland Transport of Rotavirus and the Effect of Soil Type and Vegetation

1
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois, 1304 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave., Urbana, IL 61802, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kelly T. Morgan
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BMP Development, Implementation, and Performance)
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Abstract

Soil and vegetation are two critical factors for controlling the overland transport kinetics of pathogens in a natural environment. With livestock operations moving more towards concentrated animal operations, the need to dispose of a very large amount of manure in a localized area is becoming increasingly important. Animal manure contains a substantial amount of microbial pathogens, including rotavirus, which may pose a threat of contamination of water resources. This study examined the kinetics of rotavirus in overland transport, with an overall objective of optimizing the design of best management practices, especially vegetative filter strips. The overland transport of rotavirus was studied using three soil types (Catlin silt-loam, Darwin silty-clay, Alvin fine sandy-loam), spanning the entire spectrum of typical Illinois soil textures. A 20-min rainfall event was produced using a small-scale (1.07 m × 0.66 m) laboratory rainfall simulator over a soil box measuring 0.610 m × 0.305 m. Each soil type was tested for rotavirus transport kinetics with bare surface conditions, as well as with Smooth Brome and Fescue vegetative covers. Surface runoff, near-surface runoff, soil cores, and vegetation were each analyzed for infective rotavirus particles using cell-culture infectivity assays. Results show that vegetation reduces the recovery of infective rotavirus particles in surface runoff by an average of 73%, in addition to delaying the time to peak recovery. The vegetation, in general, appeared to decrease the recovery of infective rotavirus particles in surface runoff by impeding surface flow and increasing the potential for infiltration into the soil profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: health; pathogen; vegetation; water quality health; pathogen; vegetation; water quality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Davidson, P.C.; Kuhlenschmidt, T.B.; Bhattarai, R.; Kalita, P.K.; Kuhlenschmidt, M.S. Overland Transport of Rotavirus and the Effect of Soil Type and Vegetation. Water 2016, 8, 78.

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