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Water 2015, 7(2), 697-715; doi:10.3390/w7020697

Biomonitoring of Epilobium hirsutum L. Health Status to Assess Water Ecotoxicity in Constructed Wetlands Treating Mixtures of Contaminants

1
Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d'Ecologie marine et continentale (IMBE), Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, Avignon Université, Case 4, 3, place Victor Hugo, F-13331 Marseille cedex 03, France
2
ECO-MED SARL, Tour Méditerranée, 65 Avenue Jules Cantini, 13298 Marseille Cedex 20, France
3
Laboratoire de Chimie de l'Environnement, Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, FRE 3416, 3 place Victor Hugo—Case 29, F-13331 Marseille Cedex 3, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Say-Leong Ong
Received: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [944 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

For the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants and metals in constructed wetlands (CWs), phytoindicators may help in guiding management practices for plants and optimizing phytoremediation processes. Hairy willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum L.) is a fast growing species commonly found in European CWs that could constitute a suitable phytoindicator of metal toxicity. E. hirsutum was exposed for 113 days in microcosm CWs, to a metal and metalloid mixture (MPM, containing Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn), an organic pollutant mixture (OPM, containing hydrocarbonsC10-C40, phenanthrene, pyrene, anionic detergent LAS) and an organic pollutant and metal and metalloid mixture (OMPM), separately and at concentration levels mimicking levels of industrial effluents. Analyses of metal and As concentrations in biomass, and different biometric and physiological measurements were performed. Results showed that metal uptake patterns were affected by the type of pollutant mixture, resulting in variation of toxicity symptoms in E. hirsutum plants. Some of them appeared to be similar under MPM and OMPM conditions (leaf chlorosis and tip-burning, decrease of green leaf proportion), while others were characteristic of each pollutant mixture (MPM: Decrease of water content, increase of phenol content; OMPM: reduction of limb length, inhibition of vegetative reproduction, increase of chlorophyll content and Nitrogen balance index). Results emphasize the potential of E. hirsutum as a bioindicator species to be used in European CWs treating water with metal, metalloid and organic pollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace elements; organic pollutants; biomonitoring; hairy willow herb; phytoremediation; constructed wetland; wastewater trace elements; organic pollutants; biomonitoring; hairy willow herb; phytoremediation; constructed wetland; wastewater
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guittonny-Philippe, A.; Masotti, V.; Rabier, J.; Petit, M.-E.; Malleret, L.; Coulomb, B.; Laffont-Schwob, I. Biomonitoring of Epilobium hirsutum L. Health Status to Assess Water Ecotoxicity in Constructed Wetlands Treating Mixtures of Contaminants. Water 2015, 7, 697-715.

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