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Water 2015, 7(2), 362-376; doi:10.3390/w7020362

Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement

1
Kapellakis Technical and Real Estate Firm, Venerato Palianis 70011, Greece
2
Region of Crete, Directorate of Agricultural Economy, Iraklion 71201, Greece
3
National Agricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), Institute of Iraklion, Iraklion 71307, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irene Xagoraraki
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Abstract

Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i) OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS), planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii) the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii) the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm) did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM), total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC) and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW detoxification. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive mill wastewater; E. camaldulensis; irrigation; land treatment; land application; biomass production; nutrient uptake; soil impacts; organic matter; phenols; salinity olive mill wastewater; E. camaldulensis; irrigation; land treatment; land application; biomass production; nutrient uptake; soil impacts; organic matter; phenols; salinity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kapellakis, I.; Tzanakakis, V.A.; Angelakis, A.N. Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement. Water 2015, 7, 362-376.

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