Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Litter Layer and Topsoil on Surface Runoff during Simulated Rainfall in Guizhou Province, China: A Plot Scale Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Numerical Investigation on Infiltration and Runoff in Unsaturated Soils with Unsteady Rainfall Intensity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(7), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070916

Transportation of Different Therapeutic Classes of Pharmaceuticals to the Surface Water, Sewage Treatment Plant, and Hospital Samples, Malaysia

1
Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemistry, College of Science for Women, University of Babylon, P.O. Box 4, 51 Babylon, Iraq
3
Centre for Water Research and Analysis (ALIR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
4
National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia, Lot 5377, Jalan Putra Permai, 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai Johor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3026 KB, uploaded 11 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

All pharmaceuticals are separated chromatographically using the liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (LC-ToF/MS) on a 5 µm, 2.1 mm × 250 mm, C18 column at 0.3 mL/min. The recovery is investigated at two spiking levels, 10 and 1 ng/mL; the mean recovery is higher than 77, 84, and 93% in sewage treatment plants (STP) influent, STP effluent, and surface water, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) averages 29, 16, 7, and 2 ng/L in STP influent, STP effluent, surface water, and drinking water, respectively. The matrix effect is also evaluated in STP influent and effluent. It is observed that sulfamethoxazole, prednisolone, ketoprofen, and glibenclamide are highly impacted compared to other compounds, −99, −110, 77, and 91%, respectively. The results show that six out of nine pharmaceuticals, namely atenolol, acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, and sulfamethoxazole are detected in STP influent, STP effluent, and surface water. However, the means of concentration are 561, 3305, 1805, 3900, 78, and 308 ng/L for atenolol, acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, and sulfamethoxazole, respectively, in STP influent. Caffeine and acetaminophen are detected with the highest concentration, reaching up to 8700 and 4919 ng/L, respectively, in STP influent. View Full-Text
Keywords: transportation of pharmaceuticals; Malaysian aquatic environment; pharmaceutical consumption; LC-ToF/MS transportation of pharmaceuticals; Malaysian aquatic environment; pharmaceutical consumption; LC-ToF/MS
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Qaim, F.F.; Mussa, Z.H.; Yuzir, A.; Tahrim, N.A.; Hashim, N.; Azman, S. Transportation of Different Therapeutic Classes of Pharmaceuticals to the Surface Water, Sewage Treatment Plant, and Hospital Samples, Malaysia. Water 2018, 10, 916.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top