Next Article in Journal
Heteroepitaxy, an Amazing Contribution of Crystal Growth to the World of Optics and Electronics
Next Article in Special Issue
Electro-Infiltration of Cytochrome C into a Porous Silicon Network, and Its Effect on Nucleation and Protein Crystallization—Studies of the Electrical Properties of Porous Silicon Layer-Protein Systems for Applications in Electron-Transfer Biomolecular Devices
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of III-V Substrate Roughness and Deoxidation Induced by Digital Etch in Achieving Low Resistance Metal Contacts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of an External Electric Field on the Kinetics of Dislocation-Free Growth of Tetragonal Hen Egg White Lysozyme Crystals
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2017, 7(6), 179; doi:10.3390/cryst7060179

Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, UNAM, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abel Moreno
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3177 KB, uploaded 20 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC) using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave) at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave), giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”. View Full-Text
Keywords: lysozyme; crystal growth in solution; gel-growth; electric fields; magnetic fields; pulse-wave lysozyme; crystal growth in solution; gel-growth; electric fields; magnetic fields; pulse-wave
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Romero, A.; Esturau-Escofet, N.; Pareja-Rivera, C.; Moreno, A. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction. Crystals 2017, 7, 179.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top