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Crystals 2017, 7(7), 194; doi:10.3390/cryst7070194

Electro-Infiltration of Cytochrome C into a Porous Silicon Network, and Its Effect on Nucleation and Protein Crystallization—Studies of the Electrical Properties of Porous Silicon Layer-Protein Systems for Applications in Electron-Transfer Biomolecular Devices

1
Instituto de Ciencias-CIDS Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ed. 130 C, Col. San Manuel C.P., 72570 Puebla, Mexico
2
Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C.U., 04510 Mexico City, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field)
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Abstract

In this work, we report the electrical properties of cytochrome C (Cyt C) inside porous silicon (PSi). We first used two techniques of protein infiltration: classic sitting drop and electrochemical migration methods. The electrochemically assisted cell, used for the infiltration by electro-migration, improved the Cyt C nucleation and the crystallization behavior due to the PSi. We were able to carry out the crystallization thanks to the previous infiltration of proteins inside the Si pores network. We then continued the protein crystal growth through a vapor diffusion set-up. Secondly, we applied both forward and reverse bias currents only to the infiltrated Cyt C. Finally, the electrical characteristics were compared to the control (the protein molecules of which were not infiltrated) and to the samples without protein infiltration. The linker used in the sitting drop method influenced the electrical properties, which showed a modification in the current density. The simple drop method showed a current density of ~42 A/cm2; when employing the electrochemical cell technique, the current density was ~318 A/cm2; for the crystallized structures, it was ~0.908 A/cm2. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytochrome C nucleation and crystallization; protein infiltration; porous silicon; electrical properties; silanes; electron-transfer biomolecular devices; I–V characteristics cytochrome C nucleation and crystallization; protein infiltration; porous silicon; electrical properties; silanes; electron-transfer biomolecular devices; I–V characteristics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Serrano-De la Rosa, L.E.; Moreno, A.; Pacio, M. Electro-Infiltration of Cytochrome C into a Porous Silicon Network, and Its Effect on Nucleation and Protein Crystallization—Studies of the Electrical Properties of Porous Silicon Layer-Protein Systems for Applications in Electron-Transfer Biomolecular Devices. Crystals 2017, 7, 194.

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