Cancers 2011, 3(1), 730-746; doi:10.3390/cancers3010730

Metastatic Tumor Dormancy in Cutaneous Melanoma: Does Surgery Induce Escape?

1email, 2email and 2,* email
Received: 20 December 2010; in revised form: 28 January 2011 / Accepted: 11 February 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: According to the concept of tumor dormancy, tumor cells may exist as single cells or microscopic clusters of cells that are clinically undetectable, but remain viable and have the potential for malignant outgrowth. At metastatic sites, escape from tumor dormancy under more favorable local microenvironmental conditions or through other, yet undefined stimuli, may account for distant recurrence after supposed “cure” following surgical treatment of the primary tumor. The vast majority of evidence to date in support of the concept of tumor dormancy originates from animal studies; however, extensive epidemiologic data from breast cancer strongly suggests that this process does occur in human disease. In this review, we aim to demonstrate that metastatic tumor dormancy does exist in cutaneous melanoma based on evidence from mouse models and clinical observations of late recurrence and occult transmission by organ transplantation. Experimental data underscores the critical role of impaired angiogenesis and immune regulation as major mechanisms for maintenance of tumor dormancy. Finally, we examine evidence for the role of surgery in promoting escape from tumor dormancy at metastatic sites in cutaneous melanoma.
Keywords: tumor dormancy; cutaneous melanoma; metastasis; angiogenesis; adaptive immunity; surgery-induced growth; cancer stem cell; pre-metastatic niche
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tseng, W.W.; Fadaki, N.; Leong, S.P. Metastatic Tumor Dormancy in Cutaneous Melanoma: Does Surgery Induce Escape? Cancers 2011, 3, 730-746.

AMA Style

Tseng WW, Fadaki N, Leong SP. Metastatic Tumor Dormancy in Cutaneous Melanoma: Does Surgery Induce Escape? Cancers. 2011; 3(1):730-746.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tseng, William W.; Fadaki, Niloofar; Leong, Stanley P. 2011. "Metastatic Tumor Dormancy in Cutaneous Melanoma: Does Surgery Induce Escape?" Cancers 3, no. 1: 730-746.

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