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Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 200; doi:10.3390/mi8070200

Potential of Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators for Grape Must Fermentation Monitoring

1
Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna, Austria
2
Group of Microsystems, Actuators and Sensors, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in the 27th Micromechanics and Microsystems EuropeWorkshop, Cork, Ireland, 28–30 August 2016.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric MEMS)
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Abstract

In this study grape must fermentation is monitored using a self-actuating/self-sensing piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) resonator. The sensor element is excited in an advanced roof tile-shaped vibration mode, which ensures high Q-factors in liquids (i.e., Q ~100 in isopropanol), precise resonance frequency analysis, and a fast measurement procedure. Two sets of artificial model solutions are prepared, representing an ordinary and a stuck/sluggish wine fermentation process. The precision and reusability of the sensor are shown using repetitive measurements (10 times), resulting in standard deviations of the measured resonance frequencies of ~0.1%, Q-factor of ~11%, and an electrical conductance peak height of ~12%, respectively. With the applied evaluation procedure, moderate standard deviations of ~1.1% with respect to density values are achieved. Based on these results, the presented sensor concept is capable to distinguish between ordinary and stuck wine fermentation, where the evolution of the wine density associated with the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during fermentation processes causes a steady increase in the resonance frequency for an ordinary fermentation. Finally, the first test measurements in real grape must are presented, showing a similar trend in the resonance frequency compared to the results of an artificial solutions, thus proving that the presented sensor concept is a reliable and reusable platform for grape must fermentation monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-electromechanical system (MEMS); resonator; liquid sensing; piezoelectric; aluminium nitride (AlN); grape must fermentation micro-electromechanical system (MEMS); resonator; liquid sensing; piezoelectric; aluminium nitride (AlN); grape must fermentation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pfusterschmied, G.; Toledo, J.; Kucera, M.; Steindl, W.; Zemann, S.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Sanchez-Rojas, J.L.; Schmid, U. Potential of Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators for Grape Must Fermentation Monitoring. Micromachines 2017, 8, 200.

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