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Micromachines 2016, 7(6), 93; doi:10.3390/mi7060093

Multiparameter Microwave Characterization and Probing of Ultralow Glucose Concentration Using a Microfabricated Biochip

RFIC Center, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-dong, Nowon-ku, Seoul 139-701, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Behraad Bahreyni
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 1 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microresonators)
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Abstract

This paper presents a planar biochip consisting of electromagnetically coupled, symmetric, square open loops for the multiparameter microwave characterization of deionized water, a phosphate-buffered saline solution, and a fructose-deionized water solution. The characterization additionally includes the probing of an ultralow glucose concentration in a very small volume of human sera and in solutions of d-glucose powder and deionized water. The interaction between the coupled electromagnetic field and the aqueous solution sample translates into a predictable relationship between the electrical characteristics of the biochip (magnitude and phase of S-parameters, attenuation, phase constant, group delay, characteristic impedance, and effective complex permittivity) and the physical properties of the solution. Owing to the microfabrication technology used for fabricating the proposed microbiochip, it is possible to develop robust, compact square open loops with a microsized coupling gap that characterizes a very small volume (1 μL) of the sample. Additionally, the biochip’s impedance peaks at its resonances were modeled using glucose-level-dependent coupling capacitance between folded square open loops and mutual inductance between center-loaded T-shaped stubs. These peaks linearly shifted in frequencies and markedly varied in impedance. Consequently, a physiologically relevant amount of glucose (50–400 mg/dL) with a high sensitivity (up to 2.036 Ω/(mg·dL−1)) and an ultralow detection limit (up to 4.8 nmol/L) was linearly detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: complex permittivity; glucose probing; group delay; impedance at self-resonance; microfabricated biochip; multiparameter microwave characterization complex permittivity; glucose probing; group delay; impedance at self-resonance; microfabricated biochip; multiparameter microwave characterization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adhikari, K.K.; Kim, E.S.; Kim, N.Y. Multiparameter Microwave Characterization and Probing of Ultralow Glucose Concentration Using a Microfabricated Biochip. Micromachines 2016, 7, 93.

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