Multiparameter Microwave Characterization and Probing of Ultralow Glucose Concentration Using a Microfabricated Biochip
AbstractThis paper presents a planar biochip consisting of electromagnetically coupled, symmetric, square open loops for the multiparameter microwave characterization of deionized water, a phosphate-buffered saline solution, and a fructose-deionized water solution. The characterization additionally includes the probing of an ultralow glucose concentration in a very small volume of human sera and in solutions of d-glucose powder and deionized water. The interaction between the coupled electromagnetic field and the aqueous solution sample translates into a predictable relationship between the electrical characteristics of the biochip (magnitude and phase of S-parameters, attenuation, phase constant, group delay, characteristic impedance, and effective complex permittivity) and the physical properties of the solution. Owing to the microfabrication technology used for fabricating the proposed microbiochip, it is possible to develop robust, compact square open loops with a microsized coupling gap that characterizes a very small volume (1 μL) of the sample. Additionally, the biochip’s impedance peaks at its resonances were modeled using glucose-level-dependent coupling capacitance between folded square open loops and mutual inductance between center-loaded T-shaped stubs. These peaks linearly shifted in frequencies and markedly varied in impedance. Consequently, a physiologically relevant amount of glucose (50–400 mg/dL) with a high sensitivity (up to 2.036 Ω/(mg·dL−1)) and an ultralow detection limit (up to 4.8 nmol/L) was linearly detected. View Full-Text
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Adhikari, K.K.; Kim, E.S.; Kim, N.Y. Multiparameter Microwave Characterization and Probing of Ultralow Glucose Concentration Using a Microfabricated Biochip. Micromachines 2016, 7, 93.
Adhikari KK, Kim ES, Kim NY. Multiparameter Microwave Characterization and Probing of Ultralow Glucose Concentration Using a Microfabricated Biochip. Micromachines. 2016; 7(6):93.Chicago/Turabian Style
Adhikari, Kishor K.; Kim, Eun S.; Kim, Nam Y. 2016. "Multiparameter Microwave Characterization and Probing of Ultralow Glucose Concentration Using a Microfabricated Biochip." Micromachines 7, no. 6: 93.