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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 46; doi:10.3390/toxins9020046

Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

1
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway
2
Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway
3
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo, Norway
4
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Brera
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure and Risk Assessment for Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [236 KB, uploaded 4 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; DON; risk assessment; chronic exposure; Fusarium graminearum deoxynivalenol; DON; risk assessment; chronic exposure; Fusarium graminearum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sundheim, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.; Fæste, C.K.; Brantsæter, A.-L.; Brodal, G.; Eriksen, G.S. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups. Toxins 2017, 9, 46.

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