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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 48; doi:10.3390/toxins9020048

Biodegradation Mechanisms of Patulin in Candida guilliermondii: An iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis

1
Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Department of Ecology and Evolution, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Logrieco and Yang Liu
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2044 KB, uploaded 8 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Patulin, a potent mycotoxin, contaminates fruits and derived products worldwide, and is a serious health concern. Several yeast strains have shown the ability to effectively degrade patulin. However, the mechanisms of its biodegradation still remain unclear at this time. In the present study, biodegradation and involved mechanisms of patulin by an antagonistic yeast Candida guilliermondii were investigated. The results indicated that C. guilliermondii was capable of not only multiplying to a high population in medium containing patulin, but also effectively reducing patulin content in culture medium. Degradation of patulin by C. guilliermondii was dependent on the yeast cell viability, and mainly occurred inside cells. E-ascladiol was the main degradation product of patulin. An iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis revealed that the responses of C. guilliermondii to patulin were complex. A total of 30 differential proteins involved in 10 biological processes were identified, and more than two-thirds of the differential proteins were down-accumulated. Notably, a short-chain dehydrogenase (gi|190348612) was markedly induced by patulin at both the protein and mRNA levels. Our findings will provide a foundation to help enable the commercial development of an enzyme formulation for the detoxification of patulin in fruit-derived products. View Full-Text
Keywords: contamination; detoxification; mycotoxins; patulin; Penicillium; yeast contamination; detoxification; mycotoxins; patulin; Penicillium; yeast
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Chen, Y.; Peng, H.-M.; Wang, X.; Li, B.-Q.; Long, M.-Y.; Tian, S.-P. Biodegradation Mechanisms of Patulin in Candida guilliermondii: An iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis. Toxins 2017, 9, 48.

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