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Toxins 2016, 8(4), 106; doi:10.3390/toxins8040106

δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats

1
Departmento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
2
Departmento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
3
Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Rua Conde Pereira Carneiro, 80, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510010, Brazil
4
Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Marechal Campos, 1468, Vitória, ES 29040-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Greta Binford
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1726 KB, uploaded 12 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

PnTx4(6-1), henceforth renamed δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a (δ-CNTX-Pn1a), a peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, initially described as an insect toxin, binds to site 3 of sodium channels in nerve cord synaptosomes and slows down sodium current inactivation in isolated axons in cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). δ-CNTX-Pn1a does not cause any apparent toxicity to mice, when intracerebroventricularly injected (30 μg). In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of δ-CNTX-Pn1a in three animal pain models and investigated its mechanism of action in acute pain. In the inflammatory pain model, induced by carrageenan, δ-CNTX-Pn1a restored the nociceptive threshold of rats, when intraplantarly injected, 2 h and 30 min after carrageenan administration. Concerning the neuropathic pain model, δ-CNTX-Pn1a, when intrathecally administered, reversed the hyperalgesia evoked by sciatic nerve constriction. In the acute pain model, induced by prostaglandin E2, intrathecal administration of δ-CNTX-Pn1a caused a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Using antagonists of the receptors, we showed that the antinociceptive effect of δ-CNTX-Pn1a involves both the cannabinoid system, through CB1 receptors, and the opioid system, through μ and δ receptors. Our data show, for the first time, that δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a is able to induce antinociception in inflammatory, neuropathic and acute pain models. View Full-Text
Keywords: spider toxin; δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a; PnTx4(6-1); Phoneutria nigriventer; spider venom; antinociception spider toxin; δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a; PnTx4(6-1); Phoneutria nigriventer; spider venom; antinociception
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Emerich, B.L.; Ferreira, R.C.M.; Cordeiro, M.N.; Borges, M.H.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Figueiredo, S.G.; Duarte, I.D.G.; de Lima, M.E. δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats. Toxins 2016, 8, 106.

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