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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 665-678; doi:10.3390/toxins6020665
Review

Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Culprits of Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

1,2
 and 1,*
Received: 11 December 2013; in revised form: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremic Toxins)
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Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although great advances have recently been made in the pathophysiology and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, CKD remains a major global health problem. Moreover, the occurrence rates of cardiovascular events among CKD patients increase even in cases in which patients undergo hemodialysis, and the mechanisms underlying the so-called “cardiorenal syndrome” are not clearly understood. Recently, small-molecule uremic toxins have been associated with cardiovascular mortality in CKD and/or dialysis patients. These toxins range from small uncharged solutes to large protein-bound structures. In this review, we focused on protein-bound uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, which are poorly removed by current dialysis techniques. Several studies have demonstrated that protein-bound uremic toxins, especially indoxyl sulfate, induce vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular calcification, which may explain the relatively poor prognosis of CKD and dialysis patients. The aim of this review is to provide novel insights into the effects of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Keywords: protein-bound uremic toxin; cardiorenal syndrome; indoxyl sulfate; p-cresyl sulfate; oral adsorbent protein-bound uremic toxin; cardiorenal syndrome; indoxyl sulfate; p-cresyl sulfate; oral adsorbent
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ito, S.; Yoshida, M. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Culprits of Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Toxins 2014, 6, 665-678.

AMA Style

Ito S, Yoshida M. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Culprits of Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):665-678.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ito, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Masayuki. 2014. "Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Culprits of Cardiovascular Events in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients." Toxins 6, no. 2: 665-678.



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