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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 693-755; doi:10.3390/toxins6020693
Review

Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection

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Received: 20 November 2013; in revised form: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a naturally occurring toxin that has been responsible for human intoxications and fatalities. Its usual route of toxicity is via the ingestion of contaminated puffer fish which are a culinary delicacy, especially in Japan. TTX was believed to be confined to regions of South East Asia, but recent studies have demonstrated that the toxin has spread to regions in the Pacific and the Mediterranean. There is no known antidote to TTX which is a powerful sodium channel inhibitor. This review aims to collect pertinent information available to date on TTX and its analogues with a special emphasis on the structure, aetiology, distribution, effects and the analytical methods employed for its detection.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX analogues; chemistry; toxicity; source; distribution; detection tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX analogues; chemistry; toxicity; source; distribution; detection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bane, V.; Lehane, M.; Dikshit, M.; O'Riordan, A.; Furey, A. Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection. Toxins 2014, 6, 693-755.

AMA Style

Bane V, Lehane M, Dikshit M, O'Riordan A, Furey A. Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):693-755.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bane, Vaishali; Lehane, Mary; Dikshit, Madhurima; O'Riordan, Alan; Furey, Ambrose. 2014. "Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection." Toxins 6, no. 2: 693-755.



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