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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 575-591; doi:10.3390/toxins6020575

Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum

Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, Poznań 60-625, Poland
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, Poznań 60-637, Poland
Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, Poznań 60-179, Poland
Department of Plant Physiology, Vinh University, Le Duan 182, Vinh City, Vietnam
Department of Genomics, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Strzeszyńska 34, Poznań 60-479, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
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This study comprises analyses of contents of mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, as well as the level of oxidative stress in ears of a susceptible wheat cultivar Hanseat and cv. Arina, resistant to a pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Starting from 48 h after inoculation, a marked increase was observed in the contents of these mycotoxins in ears of wheat; however, the greatest accumulation was recorded in the late period after inoculation, i.e., during development of disease. Up to 120 h after inoculation, in ears of both wheat cultivars, the level of deoxynivalenol was higher than that of zearalenone. The susceptible cultivar was characterized by a much greater accumulation of deoxynivalenol than the resistant cultivar. At the same time, in this cultivar, in the time from 0 to 72 h after inoculation, a marked post-infection increase was observed in the generation of the superoxide radical (O2•−). Additionally, its level, at all the time points after inoculation, was higher than in the control. In wheat cv. Arina, a markedly higher level of O2•− generation in relation to the control was found up to two hours after inoculation and, next, at a later time after inoculation. In turn, the level of semiquinone radicals detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) increased at later culture times, both in cv. Hanseat and Arina; however, in infested ears of wheat, it was generally lower than in the control. Analysis of disease symptoms revealed the presence of more extensive lesions in ears of a susceptible wheat cv. Hanseat than resistant cv. Arina. Additionally, ergosterol level as a fungal growth indicator was higher in ears of susceptible wheat than in the resistant cultivar. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; semiquinone radicals; Fusarium graminearum; oxidative stress; winter wheat; zearalenone; ergosterol deoxynivalenol; semiquinone radicals; Fusarium graminearum; oxidative stress; winter wheat; zearalenone; ergosterol

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Waśkiewicz, A.; Morkunas, I.; Bednarski, W.; Mai, V.C.; Formela, M.; Beszterda, M.; Wiśniewska, H.; Goliński, P. Deoxynivalenol and Oxidative Stress Indicators in Winter Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Toxins 2014, 6, 575-591.

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